What are the types and locations of elbow fractures?
Because the elbow is such a complex joint, one way to classify elbow fractures is by their location in or around the joint. Some elbow fracture locations include:
- Above the elbow(supracondylar humerus fracture): occurs when the upper arm bone (humerus) breaks just above the elbow. This is the most common elbow break in younger children.
- At the elbow “knob”(condylar fracture): a break through one of the bony knobs (lateral and medial condyles) at the end of the humerus
- At the elbow tip(epicondylar fracture): a break at the end of the humerus, near the bony knob that makes up the tip of the elbow. This is common in pre- and early-adolescent children.
- At the growth plate(physeal fracture): a break that occurs at, into or across a growth plate (soft pieces of developing cartilage tissue from which bone grows)
- At the elbow end of the radius(radial neck fracture)
A dislocation of one of the joints of the elbow can accompany one of the above fractures, and if present, will be addressed at the same time as treatment of the fracture.
Learn more about the different types of fractures in children
What causes broken elbows in children?
A bone breaks when there’s more force applied to the bone than it can withstand. These breaks can occur from falls, trauma or a direct blow. Most childhood fractures result from mild to moderate (rather than severe) trauma that happens while children are playing or participating in sports, with the rate of fractures peaking in adolescence, especially among boys.
Certain risk factors may also increase a child’s chances of breaking an elbow
Signs and symptoms
What are the signs and symptoms of broken elbows in children?
- Common signs of a broken elbow include:
- Pain or swelling in the elbow or forearm
- An obvious deformity in the elbow or forearm
- Difficulty moving, flexing or extending the arm normally
- Warmth, bruising or redness at or near the elbow