Theonia K.  Boyd

Theonia K. Boyd, MD

Director, Division of Anatomic Pathology

Associate Professor of Pathology, Harvard Medical School

    Contact: 617-355-7431
  • Fax: 617-730-0207

Medical Services


  • Pathology
  • Perinatal & Placental Pathology


  • Pathology
To schedule an appointment: Call 617-355-7431

Experience and Education


Undergraduate School, BA

Johns Hopkins University, 1984

Baltimore, MD

Medical School

University of Utah School of Medicine, 1988

Salt Lake City, UT

Residency, Anatomic and Clinical Pathology

University of North Carolina Hospitals, 1992

Chapel Hill, NC

Fellowship, Pediatric and Perinatal Pathology

Boston Children's Hospital and Brigham and Women's Hospital, 1995

Boston, MA


  • Anatomic Pathology, Pediatric Pathology


Publications powered by Harvard Catalyst Profiles
  1. Madenci AL, Levine BS, Laufer MR, Boyd TK, Voss SD, Zurakowski D, Frazier AL, Weldon CB. Preoperative risk stratification of children with ovarian tumors. J Pediatr Surg. 2016 Sep; 51(9):1507-12.
  2. Khong TY, Mooney EE, Ariel I, Balmus NC, Boyd TK, Brundler MA, Derricott H, Evans MJ, Faye-Petersen OM, Gillan JE, Heazell AE, Heller DS, Jacques SM, Keating S, Kelehan P, Maes A, McKay EM, Morgan TK, Nikkels PG, Parks WT, Redline RW, Scheimberg I, Schoots MH, Sebire NJ, Timmer A, Turowski G, van der Voorn JP, van Lijnschoten I, Gordijn SJ. Sampling and Definitions of Placental Lesions: Amsterdam Placental Workshop Group Consensus Statement. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2016 Jul; 140(7):698-713.
  3. Madenci AL, Levine BS, Laufer MR, Boyd TK, Voss SD, Frazier AL, Weldon CB. Poor adherence to staging guidelines for children with malignant ovarian tumors. J Pediatr Surg. 2016 Sep; 51(9):1513-7.
  4. Ayturk UM, Couto JA, Hann S, Mulliken JB, Williams KL, Huang AY, Fishman SJ, Boyd TK, Kozakewich HP, Bischoff J, Greene AK, Warman ML. Somatic Activating Mutations in GNAQ and GNA11 Are Associated with Congenital Hemangioma. Am J Hum Genet. 2016 Apr 07; 98(4):789-95.
  5. Shillingford NM, Calicchio ML, Teot LA, Boyd T, Kurek KC, Goldsmith JD, Bousvaros A, Perez-Atayde AR, Kozakewich HP. Villin immunohistochemistry is a reliable method for diagnosing microvillus inclusion disease. Am J Surg Pathol. 2015 Feb; 39(2):245-50.
  6. Folkerth RD, Habbe DM, Boyd TK, McMillan K, Gromer J, Sens MA, Elliott AJ. Gastroschisis, destructive brain lesions, and placental infarction in the second trimester suggest a vascular pathogenesis. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2013 Sep-Oct; 16(5):391-6.
  7. Chan GJ, Baqui AH, Modak JK, Murillo-Chaves A, Mahmud AA, Boyd TK, Black RE, Saha SK. Early-onset neonatal sepsis in Dhaka, Bangladesh: risk associated with maternal bacterial colonisation and chorioamnionitis. Trop Med Int Health. 2013 Sep; 18(9):1057-64.
  8. Terry J, Pluchinotta FR, Sanders SP, Vergilio JA, Hyde SR, Boyd TK. Congenital langerhans cell histiocytosis with placental involvement. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2013 May-Jun; 16(3):224-8.
  9. Gómez-Laberge C, Rettig JS, Smallwood CD, Boyd TK, Arnold JH, Wolf GK. Interaction of dependent and non-dependent regions of the acutely injured lung during a stepwise recruitment manoeuvre. Physiol Meas. 2013 Feb; 34(2):163-77.
  10. Roberts DJ, Celi AC, Riley LE, Onderdonk AB, Boyd TK, Johnson LC, Lieberman E. Acute histologic chorioamnionitis at term: nearly always noninfectious. PLoS One. 2012; 7(3):e31819.
  11. Show all
  12. Boyd TK (Editor, Primary Author). Fetal Death: Principles and Pathologic Evaluation. 2011.
  13. Boyd TK. Disorders of Sexual Differentiation. Surg Pathol Clin. 2010 Sep; 3(3):553-601.
  14. Wintermark P, Boyd T, Gregas MC, Labrecque M, Hansen A. Placental pathology in asphyxiated newborns meeting the criteria for therapeutic hypothermia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Dec; 203(6):579.e1-9.
  15. Wolf GK, Grychtol B, Boyd TK, Zurakowski D, Arnold JH. Regional overdistension identified with electrical impedance tomography in the perflubron-treated lung. Physiol Meas. 2010 Aug; 31(8):S85-95.
  16. Dempers J, Wadee SA, Boyd T, Wright C, Odendaal HJ, Sens MA. Hepatic hemangioendothelioma presenting as sudden unexpected death in infancy: a case report. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2011 Jan-Feb; 14(1):71-4.
  17. Saleemuddin A, Tantbirojn P, Sirois K, Crum CP, Boyd TK, Tworoger S, Parast MM. Obstetric and perinatal complications in placentas with fetal thrombotic vasculopathy. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2010 Nov-Dec; 13(6):459-64.
  18. Saleemuddin A, Tantbirojn P, Sirois K, Crum CP, Boyd TK, Tworoger S, Parast M. Obstetric and Perinatal Complications in Placentas with Fetal Thrombotic Vasculopathy. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2010.
  19. Salisbury, E; Hall, M-H; Sharma, P; Boyd, T; Bednarek, F; Paydarfar, D. Heritability of apnea of prematurity: A retrospective twin study. Pediatric. 2010; In press..
  20. Parast MM, Saleemuddin A, Boyd TK. Chapter 35: Placental Corrleates of Unanticipated Fetal Death. Diagnostic Obstetric and Gynecologic Pathology. 2010.
  21. Parast MM, Elvin J, Boyd TK. Chapter 32: Complications of Previable Pregnancy. Diagnostic Obstetric and Gynecologic Pathology. 2010.
  22. Boyd TK, Tanbirojn P, Kindelberger DW, Parast MM. Chapter 36: Gestational Diseases and the Placenta. Diagnostic Obstetric and Gynecologic Pathology. 2010.
  23. Kindelberger DW, Sirois K, Boyd TK. Chapter 34: Evaluation of the Placenta. Diagnostic Obstetric and Gynecologic Pathology. 2010.
  24. Boyd TK, Elvin J, Crum CP. Chapter 1: Female Genital Tract Development and Disorders of Childhood. Diagnostic Obstetric and Gynecologic Pathology. 2010.
  25. Tantbirojn P, Saleemuddin A, Sirois K, Crum CP, Boyd TK, Tworoger S, Parast MM. Gross abnormalities of the umbilical cord: related placental histology and clinical significance. Placenta. 2009 Dec; 30(12):1083-8.
  26. Wintermark P, Boyd T, Parast MM, Van Marter LJ, Warfield SK, Robertson RL, Ringer SA. Fetal placental thrombosis and neonatal implications. Am J Perinatol. 2010 Mar; 27(3):251-6.
  27. Tanbirojn P, Crum CP, Boyd TK. “Inflammatory Abruption” in Second Trimester Amniotic Fluid Infection Suggests Cervical Incompetence. Poster presentation, Annual meeting, United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology. 2009.
  28. Folkins A, Roh M, Crum C, Kindelberger D, Boyd T. . Villous Histology Predicts Karyotype in Early Pregnancy Loss. Modern Pathology. 2009; 22:325-326.
  29. Williamson A, Boyd T. Chronic Gastritis in Children: Toward a Histologic Definition and its Clinical Utility. Modern Pathology. 2009; 22:328-329.
  30. Parast MM, Crum CP, Boyd TK. Placental histologic criteria for umbilical blood flow restriction in unexplained stillbirth. Hum Pathol. 2008 Jun; 39(6):948-53.
  31. Boyd T. Placental Pathology: Insights into Mechanisms Affecting the Fetal and Neonatal Brain. Fetal and Neonatal Brain Injury: Mechanisms, Management and the Risk of Practice. 2008.
  32. Hanley LC, Boyd TK, Hecht JL. Acardiac twin presenting as fetus amorphous with an attenuated umbilical cord. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2007 Nov-Dec; 10(6):487-90.
  33. McKenney JK, Collins MH, Carretero AP, Boyd TK, Redman JF, Parham DM. Penile myointimoma in children and adolescents: a clinicopathologic study of 5 cases supporting a distinct entity. Am J Surg Pathol. 2007 Oct; 31(10):1622-6.
  34. Chan M, Hecht JL, Boyd T, Rosen S. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection: a cause of renal dysplasia? Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2007 Jul-Aug; 10(4):300-4.
  35. Lee Y, Kim KR, McKeon F, Yang A, Boyd TK, Crum CP, Parast MM. A unifying concept of trophoblastic differentiation and malignancy defined by biomarker expression. Hum Pathol. 2007 Jul; 38(7):1003-13.
  36. Delaney M, Boyd TK. Case report of unilateral clefting: is sonic hedgehog to blame? Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2007 Mar-Apr; 10(2):117-20.
  37. Adkins RM, Klauser CK, Magann EF, Krushkal J, Boyd TK, Fain JN, Morrison JC. Site -2548 of the leptin gene is associated with gender-specific trends in newborn size and cord leptin levels. Int J Pediatr Obes. 2007; 2(3):130-7.
  38. Parast M, Crum C, Boyd T. Evaluation of Criteria for Diagnosis of Non-Acute Umbilical Cord Compression as Cause of Third Trimester Stillbirth, Platform presentation, Annual meeting. Society for Pediatric Pathology. 2007.
  39. Parast M, Crum C, Boyd T. Placental Fetal Vascular Changes Diagnostic for Cord Accident in Unexplained Stillbirth, Platform presentation, Annual meeting. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. 2007.
  40. Wolf G, Boyd T, Sheeran P, Arnold J. Gas Exchange and Lung Injury during High Frequency Ventilation of the Perflubron-treated Lung, Platform presentation. 24th Conference on High Frequency Ventilation of Infants, Children & Adults. 2007.
  41. Saad A, Boyd T. Anaplasia in Select Pediatric Tumors is Associated with p53 Overexpression, Poster presentation, Annual meeting. Society for Pediatric Pathology. 2007.
  42. Boyd T, Redline RW. Chapter 15: Pathology of the Placenta. Potter’s Pathology of the Fetus and Infant. 2007.
  43. Chikwava KR, Savell VH, Boyd TK. Fatal cephalosporin-induced acute hypersensitivity myocarditis. Pediatr Cardiol. 2006 Nov-Dec; 27(6):777-80.
  44. Kantarci S, Casavant D, Prada C, Russell M, Byrne J, Haug LW, Jennings R, Manning S, Blaise F, Boyd TK, Fryns JP, Holmes LB, Donahoe PK, Lee C, Kimonis V, Pober BR. Findings from aCGH in patients with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH): a possible locus for Fryns syndrome. Am J Med Genet A. 2006 Jan 1; 140(1):17-23.
  45. Lilic N, Riedlinger W, Boyd T. Periosteal Origin of Skeletal and Deep Extraskeletal Ewing Sarcoma, Platform presentation, Annual meeting. Society for Pediatric Pathology. 2006.
  46. Parast M, Crum C, Boyd T. Criteria for Identifying Fatal Restriction of Umbilical Blood Flow, Platform presentation, Annual meeting. Society for Pediatric Pathology. 2006.
  47. Vargas SO, Kozakewich HP, Boyd TK, Ecklund K, Fishman SJ, Laufer MR, Perez-Atayde AR. Childhood asymmetric labium majus enlargement: mimicking a neoplasm. Am J Surg Pathol. 2005 Aug; 29(8):1007-16.
  48. Wadie GM, Banever GT, Moriarty KP, Courtney RA, Boyd T. Ductal carcinoma in situ in a 16-year-old adolescent boy with gynecomastia: a case report. J Pediatr Surg. 2005 Aug; 40(8):1349-53.
  49. Adkins RM, Campese C, Vaidya R, Boyd TK. Association between fetal growth restriction and polymorphisms at sites -1 and +3 of pituitary growth hormone: a case-control study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2005; 5(1):2.
  50. Boyd TK, Elvin J, Crum CP. Chapter One: Female Genital Tract Development and Disorders of Childhood. Diagnostic Obstetric and Gynecologic Pathology. 2005.
  51. Redline RW, Boyd T, Campbell V, Hyde S, Kaplan C, Khong TY, Prashner HR, Waters BL. Maternal vascular underperfusion: nosology and reproducibility of placental reaction patterns. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2004 May-Jun; 7(3):237-49.
  52. Mailloux PT, Bhopatkar S, Boyd TK, Rousou JA, Jiang L, Higgins TL. Right atrial thrombus leading to altered mental status. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2003 Aug; 17(4):509-11.
  53. Salva PS, Boyd T. Pediatric bronchial biopsy: Effect of inhaled corticosteroids on the bronchial mucosa of asthmatic children. Am J Resp Crit Care Med. 2003; 167:A507.
  54. Boyd TK. Diagnostic Imaging of Fetal Anomalies. Pediatr Devel Pathology. 2003; 6(5):46 (review).
  55. Pinar H, Stephens M, Singer DB, Boyd TK, Pflueger SM, Gang DL, Roberts DJ, Sung CJ. Triplet placentas: reference values for weights. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2002 Sep-Oct; 5(5):495-8.
  56. Dahms BB, Boyd T, Redline RW. Severe perinatal liver disease associated with fetal thrombotic vasculopathy. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2002 Jan-Feb; 5(1):80-5.
  57. Palmer RE, Kotsianti A, Cadman B, Boyd T, Gerald W, Haber DA. WT1 regulates the expression of the major glomerular podocyte membrane protein Podocalyxin. Curr Biol. 2001 Nov 13; 11(22):1805-9.
  58. Boyd TK, Redline RW. Chronic histiocytic intervillositis: a placental lesion associated with recurrent reproductive loss. Hum Pathol. 2000 Nov; 31(11):1389-96.
  59. Bakotic BW, Boyd T, Poppiti R, Pflueger S. Recurrent umbilical cord torsion leading to fetal death in 3 subsequent pregnancies: a case report and review of the literature. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2000 Sep; 124(9):1352-5.
  60. Brugnara C, Zurakowski D, DiCanzio J, Boyd T, Platt O. Reticulocyte hemoglobin content to diagnose iron deficiency in children. JAMA. 1999 Jun 16; 281(23):2225-30.
  61. Boyd T, Perez-Atayde A. Myxoid vulvar fibromatosis: A recurrent vulvar lesion in young girls. Pediatr Devel Pathol. 1999; 2:196.
  62. Boyd T, Gang D, Lis G, McCall J, Juozokas A, Pflueger S. Normative values for placental weights (N=15,419): Baystate Medical Center 1995-97. Modern Pathol. 1999; 12:1P.
  63. Boyd T, Gang D. Spontaneous neonatal intestinal perforation due to congenital absence of the muscularis propria. Pediatric & Developmental Pathol. 1998; 1:250.
  64. Boyd T, Pleyvak M, Christian J, Naeem R. Confined placental mosaicism as a mechanism for enhanced intrauterine survival in fetal trisomy 21. Modern Pathol. 1997; 10:156A.
  65. Boyd TK, Schofield DE. Monozygotic twins concordant for congenital neuroblastoma: case report and review of the literature. Pediatr Pathol Lab Med. 1995 Nov-Dec; 15(6):931-40.
  66. Boyd T, Rosen S, Redline RW, Genest DR. Nondysplastic fetal renal hypoplasia associated with severe oligohydramnios: clinical, pathologic, and morphometric findings. Pediatr Pathol Lab Med. 1995 May-Jun; 15(3):485-501.
  67. Genest DR, Roberts D, Boyd T, Bieber FR. Fetoplacental histology as a predictor of karyotype: a controlled study of spontaneous first trimester abortions. Hum Pathol. 1995 Feb; 26(2):201-9.
  68. Boyd T, Blatman R, Greene M, Genest D. Twin-twin transfusion and velamentous cord insertion: Evidence for causal linkage. Modern Pathol. 1994; 7:270.
  69. Boyd T and Dalldorf F. A Review of the Autopsy Service: UNC hospitals, July 1988 through June 1989. UNCH Bulletin Laboratory Medicine, #110. 1990.
To schedule an appointment: Call 617-355-7431


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