I conduct research efforts to advance deep brain stimulation, neuroendoscopic approaches to surgery, and memory and cognition, drawing on a deep training in basic science to propel these efforts.
My clinical practice focuses on the use of deep brain stimulation in children, which is currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat primary dystonia under a Humanitarian Device Exemption. Used primarily for Parkinson's disease in adults, deep brain stimulation has been tried in many conditions including psychiatric diseases, epilepsy and cognitive impairment.
As a researcher, I am interested in other applications of deep brain stimulation, including its uses in cognitive impairment and to restore memory, as well as new potential targets for stimulation that may better ameliorate movement disorders. In the clinic, I am also working to identify better targets for deep brain stimulation in the hopes of helping more children with diseases of brain function.
My PhD thesis focused on neurogenesis, or the regrowth of brain cells, and memory enhancement. A key publication to build off my dissertation demonstrated, in animal models, that deep brain stimulation can cause new brain cells to grow and become connected, resulting in memory improvement.
As a doctorate in neuroscience, I achieved the highest possible level of training to conduct basic research. I earned the Canadian Institutes of Health Research Bisby Fellowship Award in 2008, a major national prize honoring and supporting my PhD research.
I also study less invasive ways to perform neurosurgery. Together with Dr. Ben Warf, I catalogued the efficacy of a novel, low-cost endoscopic surgery for hydrocephalus in North America. With Dr. Joseph Madsen, I have studied MRI-guided laser ablation in epilepsy.
My basic science research has led to several important publications that are shaping understanding of deep brain stimulation and its potential, as well as neuroendoscopic approaches in multiple surgical situations. These include:
Hamani C, Stone S, Laxton A, Lozano AM. The pedunculopontine nucleus and movement disorders: anatomy and the role for deep brain stimulation. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2007;13 Suppl 3:S276-80.
Hamani C, Stone SS, Garten A, Lozano AM, Winocur G. Memory rescue and enhanced neurogenesis following electrical stimulation of the anterior thalamus in rats treated with corticosterone. Exp Neurol. 2011 Nov;232(1):100-4.
Stone SS, Teixeira C, Zaslavsky K, Wheeler A, Martinez-Canabal A, Wang A, Sakaguchi M, Lozano A, Frankland P. Functional convergence of developmentally- and adult- generated granule cells in dentate gyrus circuits supporting hippocampus-dependent memory. Hippocampus. 2011 Dec;21(12):1348-62.
Stone SS, Teixeira CM, DeVito LM, Zaslavsky K, Josselyn SA, Lozano AM, Frankland PW. Stimulation of entorhinal cortex promotes adult neurogenesis and facilitates spatial memory. J Neurosci. 2011 Sep 21;31(38):13469-84.
Stone S D (2012). Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Memory Enhancement. (Doctoral Thesis). Available from: U. of Toronto Research Repository T-Space [http://hdl.handle.net/1807/32906
Stone SSD, Frankland PW. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis and memory. In: Giese KP (ed). Memory mechanisms in health and disease: mechanistic basis of memory, 2012. World Scientific Publishing.
Gross BA, Stone SS, Smith ER. Occipital pial synangiosis. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2014 Jul;156(7):1297-300.
Stone SS, Warf BC. Combined endoscopic third ventriculostomy and choroid plexus cauterization as primary treatment for infant hydrocephalus: a prospective North American series. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2014 Nov;14(5):439-46.
Stone S, Alterman RL. Deep brain stimulation for dystonia. In: Youmans JR, Winn HR (eds). Youmans neurological surgery - 7th edition, 2015. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders/Elsevier. [under review]
Stone SS, Cohen AR. Pineal region tumors. In: Jallo GI, Kothbauer K, Recinos V (eds).
Handbook of pediatric neurosurgery, 2015. NY: Thieme. [under review]
Stone SS, Madsen JR. MRI-guided stereotactic laser ablations for pediatric temporal lobe epilepsy. 2015. [In Preparation]