Ofer Levy

Ofer Levy, MD, PhD

Director, Precision Vaccines Program

Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School

  • Contact: 617-919-2900

  • Fax: 617-730-0255

Medical Services

Specialties

  • Bacterial Infections
  • Infections in Immunocompromised Children
  • Neonatal Infections
  • Infectious Disease

Departments

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Medicine

Programs

  • Division of Infectious Diseases
  • Immunocompromised Host Service
To schedule an appointment: Call 617-919-2900

Experience and Education

Education

Medical School

New York University,

New York, NY

Internship, Pediatrics

Boston Children's Hospital,

Boston, MA

Residency, Pediatrics

Boston Children's Hospital,

Boston, MA

Fellowship, Pediatric Infectious Disease

Boston Children's Hospital,

Boston, MA

Certifications

  • Pediatric Infectious Diseases

Publications

Publications powered by Harvard Catalyst Profiles
  1. Battersby AJ, Khara J, Wright VJ, Levy O, Kampmann B. Antimicrobial Proteins and Peptides in Early Life: Ontogeny and Translational Opportunities. Front Immunol. 2016; 7:309.
  2. Saadatian-Elahi M, Aaby P, Shann F, Netea MG, Levy O, Louis J, Picot V, Greenberg M, Warren W. Heterologous vaccine effects. Vaccine. 2016 Jul 25; 34(34):3923-30.
  3. Pettengill MA, van Haren SD, Li N, Dowling DJ, Bergelson I, Jans J, Ferwerda G, Levy O. Distinct TLR-mediated cytokine production and immunoglobulin secretion in human newborn naïve B cells. Innate Immun. 2016 Aug; 22(6):433-43.
  4. Goodridge HS, Ahmed SS, Curtis N, Kollmann TR, Levy O, Netea MG, Pollard AJ, van Crevel R, Wilson CB. Harnessing the beneficial heterologous effects of vaccination. Nat Rev Immunol. 2016 Jun; 16(6):392-400.
  5. Ganapathi L, Arnold A, Jones S, Patterson A, Graham D, Harper M, Levy O. Use of cidofovir in pediatric patients with adenovirus infection. F1000Res. 2016; 5:758.
  6. van Haren SD, Ganapathi L, Bergelson I, Dowling DJ, Banks M, Samuels RC, Reed SG, Marshall JD, Levy O. In vitro cytokine induction by TLR-activating vaccine adjuvants in human blood varies by age and adjuvant. Cytokine. 2016 Jul; 83:99-109.
  7. Pettengill MA, Levy O. Circulating Human Neonatal Naïve B Cells are Deficient in CD73 Impairing Purine Salvage. Front Immunol. 2016; 7:121.
  8. Fish EN, Flanagan KL, Furman D, Klein SL, Kollmann TR, Jeppesen DL, Levy O, Marchant A, Namachivayam S, Netea MG, Plebanski M, Rowland-Jones SL, Selin LK, Shann F, Whittle HC. Changing oral vaccine to inactivated polio vaccine might increase mortality. Lancet. 2016 Mar 12; 387(10023):1054-5.
  9. Oh DY, Dowling DJ, Ahmed S, Choi H, Brightman S, Bergelson I, Berger ST, Sauld JF, Pettengill M, Kho AT, Pollack HJ, Steen H, Levy O. Adjuvant-induced Human Monocyte Secretome Profiles Reveal Adjuvant- and Age-specific Protein Signatures. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2016 Jun; 15(6):1877-94.
  10. Guinan E, Avigan DE, Soiffer RJ, Bunin NJ, Brennan LL, Bergelson I, Brightman S, Ozonoff A, Scannon PJ, Levy O. Pilot experience with opebacan/rBPI 21 in myeloablative hematopoietic cell transplantation. F1000Res. 2015; 4:1480.
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  12. Dowling DJ, Levy O. Pediatric Vaccine Adjuvants: Components of the Modern Vaccinologist's Toolbox. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2015 Dec; 34(12):1395-8.
  13. Nguyen DN, Fuglsang E, Jiang P, Birck MM, Pan X, Kamal SB, Pors SE, Gammelgaard PL, Nielsen DS, Thymann T, Levy O, Frøkiær H, Sangild PT. Oral antibiotics increase blood neutrophil maturation and reduce bacteremia and necrotizing enterocolitis in the immediate postnatal period of preterm pigs. Innate Immun. 2016 Jan; 22(1):51-62.
  14. Ganapathi L, Van Haren S, Dowling DJ, Bergelson I, Shukla NM, Malladi SS, Balakrishna R, Tanji H, Ohto U, Shimizu T, David SA, Levy O. The Imidazoquinoline Toll-Like Receptor-7/8 Agonist Hybrid-2 Potently Induces Cytokine Production by Human Newborn and Adult Leukocytes. PLoS One. 2015; 10(8):e0134640.
  15. Amenyogbe N, Levy O, Kollmann TR. Systems vaccinology: a promise for the young and the poor. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2015 Jun 19; 370(1671).
  16. Bi D, Qiao L, Bergelson I, Ek CJ, Duan L, Zhang X, Albertsson AM, Pettengill M, Kronforst K, Ninkovic J, Goldmann D, Janzon A, Hagberg H, Wang X, Mallard C, Levy O. Staphylococcus epidermidis Bacteremia Induces Brain Injury in Neonatal Mice via Toll-like Receptor 2-Dependent and -Independent Pathways. J Infect Dis. 2015 Nov 1; 212(9):1480-90.
  17. Levy O, Levy O. Ready to benefit from training: heterologous effects of early life immunization. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2015 Jan; 109(1):3-4.
  18. Pettengill MA, van Haren SD, Levy O. Soluble mediators regulating immunity in early life. Front Immunol. 2014; 5:457.
  19. Palmer CD, Ninkovic J, Prokopowicz ZM, Mancuso CJ, Marin A, Andrianov AK, Dowling DJ, Levy O. The effect of stable macromolecular complexes of ionic polyphosphazene on HIV Gag antigen and on activation of human dendritic cells and presentation to T-cells. Biomaterials. 2014 Oct; 35(31):8876-86.
  20. Dowling DJ, Levy O. Ontogeny of early life immunity. Trends Immunol. 2014 Jul; 35(7):299-310.
  21. Strunk T, Inder T, Wang X, Burgner D, Mallard C, Levy O. Infection-induced inflammation and cerebral injury in preterm infants. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014 Aug; 14(8):751-62.
  22. Levy O, Wynn JL. A prime time for trained immunity: innate immune memory in newborns and infants. Neonatology. 2014; 105(2):136-41.
  23. Jans J, Vissers M, Heldens JG, de Jonge MI, Levy O, Ferwerda G. Fc gamma receptors in respiratory syncytial virus infections: implications for innate immunity. Rev Med Virol. 2014 Jan; 24(1):55-70.
  24. Levy O, Netea MG. Innate immune memory: implications for development of pediatric immunomodulatory agents and adjuvanted vaccines. Pediatr Res. 2014 Jan; 75(1-2):184-8.
  25. Guinan EC, Palmer CD, Mancuso CJ, Brennan L, Stoler-Barak L, Kalish LA, Suter EE, Gallington LC, Huhtelin DP, Mansilla M, Schumann RR, Murray JC, Weiss J, Levy O. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms in hematopoietic cell transplant patients affecting early recognition of, and response to, endotoxin. Innate Immun. 2014 Oct; 20(7):697-711.
  26. Pettengill M, Robson S, Tresenriter M, Millán JL, Usheva A, Bingham T, Belderbos M, Bergelson I, Burl S, Kampmann B, Gelinas L, Kollmann T, Bont L, Levy O. Soluble ecto-5'-nucleotidase (5'-NT), alkaline phosphatase, and adenosine deaminase (ADA1) activities in neonatal blood favor elevated extracellular adenosine. J Biol Chem. 2013 Sep 20; 288(38):27315-26.
  27. Power Coombs MR, Kronforst K, Levy O. Neonatal host defense against Staphylococcal infections. Clin Dev Immunol. 2013; 2013:826303.
  28. Kollmann TR, Levy O, Hanekom W. Vaccine-induced immunity in early life. Vaccine. 2013 May 17; 31(21):2481-2.
  29. Dowling DJ, Tan Z, Prokopowicz ZM, Palmer CD, Matthews MA, Dietsch GN, Hershberg RM, Levy O. The ultra-potent and selective TLR8 agonist VTX-294 activates human newborn and adult leukocytes. PLoS One. 2013; 8(3):e58164.
  30. Cuenca AG, Wynn JL, Moldawer LL, Levy O. Role of innate immunity in neonatal infection. Am J Perinatol. 2013 Feb; 30(2):105-12.
  31. Belderbos ME, Levy O, Meyaard L, Bont L. Plasma-mediated immune suppression: a neonatal perspective. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2013 Mar; 24(2):102-13.
  32. Kollmann TR, Levy O, Montgomery RR, Goriely S. Innate immune function by Toll-like receptors: distinct responses in newborns and the elderly. Immunity. 2012 Nov 16; 37(5):771-83.
  33. Levy O, Goriely S, Kollmann TR. Immune response to vaccine adjuvants during the first year of life. Vaccine. 2013 May 17; 31(21):2500-5.
  34. Kronforst KD, Mancuso CJ, Pettengill M, Ninkovic J, Power Coombs MR, Stevens C, Otto M, Mallard C, Wang X, Goldmann D, Levy O. A neonatal model of intravenous Staphylococcus epidermidis infection in mice &lt24 h old enables characterization of early innate immune responses. PLoS One. 2012; 7(9):e43897.
  35. Nathe KE, Mancuso CJ, Parad R, Van Marter LJ, Martin CR, Stoler-Barak L, Philbin VJ, Phillips MF, Palmer CD, Levy O. Innate immune activation in neonatal tracheal aspirates suggests endotoxin-driven inflammation. Pediatr Res. 2012 Aug; 72(2):203-11.
  36. Philbin VJ, Dowling DJ, Gallington LC, Cortés G, Tan Z, Suter EE, Chi KW, Shuckett A, Stoler-Barak L, Tomai M, Miller RL, Mansfield K, Levy O. Imidazoquinoline Toll-like receptor 8 agonists activate human newborn monocytes and dendritic cells through adenosine-refractory and caspase-1-dependent pathways. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012 Jul; 130(1):195-204.e9.
  37. Strunk T, Prosser A, Levy O, Philbin V, Simmer K, Doherty D, Charles A, Richmond P, Burgner D, Currie A. Responsiveness of human monocytes to the commensal bacterium Staphylococcus epidermidis develops late in gestation. Pediatr Res. 2012 Jul; 72(1):10-8.
  38. Belderbos ME, Levy O, Stalpers F, Kimpen JL, Meyaard L, Bont L. Neonatal plasma polarizes TLR4-mediated cytokine responses towards low IL-12p70 and high IL-10 production via distinct factors. PLoS One. 2012; 7(3):e33419.
  39. Guinan EC, Barbon CM, Kalish LA, Parmar K, Kutok J, Mancuso CJ, Stoler-Barak L, Suter EE, Russell JD, Palmer CD, Gallington LC, Voskertchian A, Vergilio JA, Cole G, Zhu K, D'Andrea A, Soiffer R, Weiss JP, Levy O. Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (rBPI21) and fluoroquinolone mitigate radiation-induced bone marrow aplasia and death. Sci Transl Med. 2011 Nov 23; 3(110):110ra118.
  40. Paludan SR, Levy O, Bowie AG. Toll2011 at Lago di Garda: studying danger sensors by the guard towers at the lake. Nat Immunol. 2011 Sep; 12(9):805-8.
  41. Palmer CD, Guinan EC, Levy O. Deficient expression of bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein in immunocompromised hosts: translational potential of replacement therapy. Biochem Soc Trans. 2011 Aug; 39(4):994-9.
  42. Sanchez-Schmitz G, Levy O. Development of newborn and infant vaccines. Sci Transl Med. 2011 Jul 6; 3(90):90ps27.
  43. Palmer CD, Mancuso CJ, Weiss JP, Serhan CN, Guinan EC, Levy O. 17(R)-Resolvin D1 differentially regulates TLR4-mediated responses of primary human macrophages to purified LPS and live E. coli. J Leukoc Biol. 2011 Sep; 90(3):459-70.
  44. Du X, Fleiss B, Li H, D'angelo B, Sun Y, Zhu C, Hagberg H, Levy O, Mallard C, Wang X. Systemic stimulation of TLR2 impairs neonatal mouse brain development. PLoS One. 2011; 6(5):e19583.
  45. Burl S, Townend J, Njie-Jobe J, Cox M, Adetifa UJ, Touray E, Philbin VJ, Mancuso C, Kampmann B, Whittle H, Jaye A, Flanagan KL, Levy O. Age-dependent maturation of Toll-like receptor-mediated cytokine responses in Gambian infants. PLoS One. 2011; 6(4):e18185.
  46. PrabhuDas M, Adkins B, Gans H, King C, Levy O, Ramilo O, Siegrist CA. Challenges in infant immunity: implications for responses to infection and vaccines. Nat Immunol. 2011 Mar; 12(3):189-94.
  47. Power Coombs MR, Belderbos ME, Gallington LC, Bont L, Levy O. Adenosine modulates Toll-like receptor function: basic mechanisms and translational opportunities. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2011 Feb; 9(2):261-9.
  48. Zhang JP, Yang Y, Levy O, Chen C. Human neonatal peripheral blood leukocytes demonstrate pathogen-specific coordinate expression of TLR2, TLR4/MD2, and MyD88 during bacterial infection in vivo. Pediatr Res. 2010 Dec; 68(6):479-83.
  49. Picard C, von Bernuth H, Ghandil P, Chrabieh M, Levy O, Arkwright PD, McDonald D, Geha RS, Takada H, Krause JC, Creech CB, Ku CL, Ehl S, Maródi L, Al-Muhsen S, Al-Hajjar S, Al-Ghonaium A, Day-Good NK, Holland SM, Gallin JI, Chapel H, Speert DP, Rodriguez-Gallego C, Colino E, Garty BZ, Roifman C, Hara T, Yoshikawa H, Nonoyama S, Domachowske J, Issekutz AC, Tang M, Smart J, Zitnik SE, Hoarau C, Kumararatne DS, Thrasher AJ, Davies EG, Bethune C, Sirvent N, de Ricaud D, Camcioglu Y, Vasconcelos J, Guedes M, Vitor AB, Rodrigo C, Almazán F, Méndez M, Aróstegui JI, Alsina L, Fortuny C, Reichenbach J, Verbsky JW, Bossuyt X, Doffinger R, Abel L, Puel A, Casanova JL. Clinical features and outcome of patients with IRAK-4 and MyD88 deficiency. Medicine (Baltimore). 2010 Nov; 89(6):403-25.
  50. Strunk T, Richmond P, Prosser A, Simmer K, Levy O, Burgner D, Currie A. Method of bacterial killing differentially affects the human innate immune response to Staphylococcus epidermidis. Innate Immun. 2011 Dec; 17(6):508-16.
  51. Wynn JL, Levy O. Role of innate host defenses in susceptibility to early-onset neonatal sepsis. Clin Perinatol. 2010 Jun; 37(2):307-37.
  52. Strunk T, Power Coombs MR, Currie AJ, Richmond P, Golenbock DT, Stoler-Barak L, Gallington LC, Otto M, Burgner D, Levy O. TLR2 mediates recognition of live Staphylococcus epidermidis and clearance of bacteremia. PLoS One. 2010; 5(4):e10111.
  53. Belderbos M, Levy O, Bont L. Neonatal innate immunity in allergy development. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2009 Dec; 21(6):762-9.
  54. Stanietsky N, Simic H, Arapovic J, Toporik A, Levy O, Novik A, Levine Z, Beiman M, Dassa L, Achdout H, Stern-Ginossar N, Tsukerman P, Jonjic S, Mandelboim O. The interaction of TIGIT with PVR and PVRL2 inhibits human NK cell cytotoxicity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Oct 20; 106(42):17858-63.
  55. Demirjian A, Levy O. Neonatal vaccination: a once in a lifetime opportunity. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009 Sep; 28(9):833-5.
  56. Kliger Y, Levy O, Oren A, Ashkenazy H, Tiran Z, Novik A, Rosenberg A, Amir A, Wool A, Toporik A, Schreiber E, Eshel D, Levine Z, Cohen Y, Nold-Petry C, Dinarello CA, Borukhov I. Peptides modulating conformational changes in secreted chaperones: from in silico design to preclinical proof of concept. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Aug 18; 106(33):13797-801.
  57. Nathe KE, Parad R, Van Marter LJ, Lund CA, Suter EE, Hernandez-diaz S, Boush EB, Ikonomu E, Gallington L, Morey JA, Zeman AM, Mcnamara M, Levy O. Endotoxin-directed innate immunity in tracheal aspirates of mechanically ventilated human neonates. Pediatr Res. 2009 Aug; 66(2):191-6.
  58. Philbin VJ, Levy O. Developmental biology of the innate immune response: implications for neonatal and infant vaccine development. Pediatr Res. 2009 May; 65(5 Pt 2):98R-105R.
  59. Demirjian A, Levy O. Safety and efficacy of neonatal vaccination. Eur J Immunol. 2009 Jan; 39(1):36-46.
  60. Canny G, Levy O. Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) and BPI homologs at mucosal sites. Trends Immunol. 2008 Nov; 29(11):541-7.
  61. Demirjian A, Levy O. Novel vaccines: bridging research, development and production. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2008 Nov; 7(9):1321-4.
  62. Pai SY, Levy O, Jabara HH, Glickman JN, Stoler-Barak L, Sachs J, Nurko S, Orange JS, Geha RS. Allogeneic transplantation successfully corrects immune defects, but not susceptibility to colitis, in a patient with nuclear factor-kappaB essential modulator deficiency. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008 Dec; 122(6):1113-1118.e1.
  63. Wynn JL, Scumpia PO, Winfield RD, Delano MJ, Kelly-Scumpia K, Barker T, Ungaro R, Levy O, Moldawer LL. Defective innate immunity predisposes murine neonates to poor sepsis outcome but is reversed by TLR agonists. Blood. 2008 Sep 1; 112(5):1750-8.
  64. Philbin VJ, Levy O. Immunostimulatory activity of Toll-like receptor 8 agonists towards human leucocytes: basic mechanisms and translational opportunities. Biochem Soc Trans. 2007 Dec; 35(Pt 6):1485-91.
  65. Gonzalez M, Gueguen Y, Destoumieux-Garzón D, Romestand B, Fievet J, Pugnière M, Roquet F, Escoubas JM, Vandenbulcke F, Levy O, Sauné L, Bulet P, Bachère E. Evidence of a bactericidal permeability increasing protein in an invertebrate, the Crassostrea gigas Cg-BPI. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Nov 6; 104(45):17759-64.
  66. Levy O, Elsbach P. Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein in host defense and its efficacy in the treatment of bacterial sepsis. Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2007 Oct; 3(5):407-12.
  67. Ku CL, von Bernuth H, Picard C, Zhang SY, Chang HH, Yang K, Chrabieh M, Issekutz AC, Cunningham CK, Gallin J, Holland SM, Roifman C, Ehl S, Smart J, Tang M, Barrat FJ, Levy O, McDonald D, Day-Good NK, Miller R, Takada H, Hara T, Al-Hajjar S, Al-Ghonaium A, Speert D, Sanlaville D, Li X, Geissmann F, Vivier E, Maródi L, Garty BZ, Chapel H, Rodriguez-Gallego C, Bossuyt X, Abel L, Puel A, Casanova JL. Selective predisposition to bacterial infections in IRAK-4-deficient children: IRAK-4-dependent TLRs are otherwise redundant in protective immunity. J Exp Med. 2007 Oct 1; 204(10):2407-22.
  68. Strunk T, Richmond P, Simmer K, Currie A, Levy O, Burgner D. Neonatal immune responses to coagulase-negative staphylococci. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2007 Aug; 20(4):370-5.
  69. Levy O. Innate immunity of the newborn: basic mechanisms and clinical correlates. Nat Rev Immunol. 2007 May; 7(5):379-90.
  70. Srivastava A, Casey H, Johnson N, Levy O, Malley R. Recombinant bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein rBPI21 protects against pneumococcal disease. Infect Immun. 2007 Jan; 75(1):342-9.
  71. Ezernitchi AV, Vaknin I, Cohen-Daniel L, Levy O, Manaster E, Halabi A, Pikarsky E, Shapira L, Baniyash M. TCR zeta down-regulation under chronic inflammation is mediated by myeloid suppressor cells differentially distributed between various lymphatic organs. J Immunol. 2006 Oct 1; 177(7):4763-72.
  72. Levy O, Coughlin M, Cronstein BN, Roy RM, Desai A, Wessels MR. The adenosine system selectively inhibits TLR-mediated TNF-alpha production in the human newborn. J Immunol. 2006 Aug 1; 177(3):1956-66.
  73. Angelone DF, Wessels MR, Coughlin M, Suter EE, Valentini P, Kalish LA, Levy O. Innate immunity of the human newborn is polarized toward a high ratio of IL-6/TNF-alpha production in vitro and in vivo. Pediatr Res. 2006 Aug; 60(2):205-9.
  74. Levy O, Suter EE, Miller RL, Wessels MR. Unique efficacy of Toll-like receptor 8 agonists in activating human neonatal antigen-presenting cells. Blood. 2006 Aug 15; 108(4):1284-90.
  75. Fox LM, Wingerter S, Ahmed A, Arnold A, Chou J, Rhein L, Levy O. Neonatal babesiosis: case report and review of the literature. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006 Feb; 25(2):169-73.
  76. Canny G, Cario E, Lennartsson A, Gullberg U, Brennan C, Levy O, Colgan SP. Functional and biochemical characterization of epithelial bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2006 Mar; 290(3):G557-67.
  77. Orange JS, Levy O, Geha RS. Human disease resulting from gene mutations that interfere with appropriate nuclear factor-kappaB activation. Immunol Rev. 2005 Feb; 203:21-37.
  78. Levy O. Innate immunity of the human newborn: distinct cytokine responses to LPS and other Toll-like receptor agonists. J Endotoxin Res. 2005; 11(2):113-6.
  79. Levy O, Zarember KA, Roy RM, Cywes C, Godowski PJ, Wessels MR. Selective impairment of TLR-mediated innate immunity in human newborns: neonatal blood plasma reduces monocyte TNF-alpha induction by bacterial lipopeptides, lipopolysaccharide, and imiquimod, but preserves the response to R-848. J Immunol. 2004 Oct 1; 173(7):4627-34.
  80. Orange JS, Levy O, Brodeur SR, Krzewski K, Roy RM, Niemela JE, Fleisher TA, Bonilla FA, Geha RS. Human nuclear factor kappa B essential modulator mutation can result in immunodeficiency without ectodermal dysplasia. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004 Sep; 114(3):650-6.
  81. Levy O. Antimicrobial proteins and peptides: anti-infective molecules of mammalian leukocytes. J Leukoc Biol. 2004 Nov; 76(5):909-25.
  82. Levy O. Genetic screening for susceptibility to infection in the NICU setting. Pediatr Res. 2004 Apr; 55(4):546-8.
  83. Levy O, Jean-Jacques RM, Cywes C, Sisson RB, Zarember KA, Godowski PJ, Christianson JL, Guttormsen HK, Carroll MC, Nicholson-Weller A, Wessels MR. Critical role of the complement system in group B streptococcus-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha release. Infect Immun. 2003 Nov; 71(11):6344-53.
  84. Levy O, Teixeira-Pinto A, White ML, Carroll SF, Lehmann L, Wypij D, Guinan E. Endotoxemia and elevation of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003 Nov; 22(11):978-81.
  85. Levy O, Orange JS, Hibberd P, Steinberg S, LaRussa P, Weinberg A, Wilson SB, Shaulov A, Fleisher G, Geha RS, Bonilla FA, Exley M. Disseminated varicella infection due to the vaccine strain of varicella-zoster virus, in a patient with a novel deficiency in natural killer T cells. J Infect Dis. 2003 Oct 1; 188(7):948-53.
  86. Levy O, Canny G, Serhan CN, Colgan SP. Expression of BPI (bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein) in human mucosal epithelia. Biochem Soc Trans. 2003 Aug; 31(Pt 4):795-800.
  87. Gonen-Gross T, Achdout H, Gazit R, Hanna J, Mizrahi S, Markel G, Goldman-Wohl D, Yagel S, Horejsí V, Levy O, Baniyash M, Mandelboim O. Complexes of HLA-G protein on the cell surface are important for leukocyte Ig-like receptor-1 function. J Immunol. 2003 Aug 1; 171(3):1343-51.
  88. Ofer Levy, Armando Teixeira-Pinto, Mark L. White, Stephen F. Carroll, Leslie Lehmann, David Wypij, and Eva Guinan. Endotoxemia and elevation of lipopolysachharide-binding protein after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 2003; 22:978-981.
  89. Jerrold Weiss, Peter Elsbach, and Ofer Levy. Journeys in the study of antibacterial host defenses: Conserved mechanisms, evolving insights and potential therapeutic opportunities [review]. Recent Research Developments in Antimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy. 2003; 6:1-38.
  90. Ofer Levy, Geraldine Canny, Charles Serhan, and Sean Colgan. Expression of BPI by human mucosal epithelia [review]. Biochemical Society Transactions. 2003; 31:795-800.
  91. Ofer Levy, Kol Zarember, Rochelle Jean-Jacques, Dimitri Sigounas, Colette Cywes, Paul Godowski, and Michael R. Wessels. Newborn cord blood demonstrates impaired TNF responses to multiple pathogen-assocaited molecular pattern molecules (PAMPs) despite normal expression of monocyte Toll-like receptos 1 and 2, MD-2, MyD88 and TIRAP. Pediatric Research: Abstracts of the Pediatric Academic Societies' Annual Meeting. 2003; 350A.
  92. Ofer Levy, Jordan S. Orange, Patricia Hibberd, Sharon Steinberg, Phillip LaRussa, Adriana Weinberg, S. Brian Wilson, Angela Shaulov, Gary Fleisher, Raif S. Geha, Francisco Bonilla, Mark Exley. Disseminated varicella infection due to vaccine (Oka) strain varicella zoster virus in a patient with a novel deficiency in natural killer T cells. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2003; 188:948-953.
  93. Levy O. Impaired innate immunity at birth: deficiency of bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) in the neutrophils of newborns. Pediatr Res. 2002 Jun; 51(6):667-9.
  94. Levy O, Sisson RB, Fryer HE, Goldmann D, Valore E, Ganz T, White ML, Carroll SF, Lehmann L, Guinan EC. Neutrophil defense in patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation: bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) and defensins in graft-derived neutrophils. Transplantation. 2002 May 15; 73(9):1522-6.
  95. Canny G, Levy O, Furuta GT, Narravula-Alipati S, Sisson RB, Serhan CN, Colgan SP. Lipid mediator-induced expression of bactericidal/ permeability-increasing protein (BPI) in human mucosal epithelia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Mar 19; 99(6):3902-7.
  96. Levy O, Bourquin JP, McQueen A, Cantor AB, Lachenauer C, Malley R. Fatal disseminated Candida lusitaniae infection in an infant with chronic granulomatous disease. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2002 Mar; 21(3):262-4.
  97. Levy O. Therapeutic potential of the bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2002 Feb; 11(2):159-67.
  98. Ofer Levy, Jean-Pierre Bourquin, Alisa McQueen, Allan B. Cantor, Catherine Lauchenauer, and Richard Malley. Fatal disseminated Candida lusitania infection in an infant with chronic granulomatous disease. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 2002; 21:262-264.
  99. Geraldine Canny, Ofer Levy, Glenn T. Furuta, Sailaja Narravula-Alipati, Richard B. Sisson, Charles N. Serhan, and Sean P. Colgan. Lipid-mediator-induced expression of bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) in human mucosal epithelia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2002; 99:3902-3907.
  100. Ofer Levy and Peter Elsbach. BPI in host defense and its efficacy in the treatment of bacterial sepsis [review]. Current Infectious Disease Reports. 2001; 3:407-412.
  101. Levy O. A neutrophil-derived anti-infective molecule: bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2000 Nov; 44(11):2925-31.
  102. Levy O. Antimicrobial proteins and peptides of blood: templates for novel antimicrobial agents. Blood. 2000 Oct 15; 96(8):2664-72.
  103. Levy O, Sisson RB, Kenyon J, Eichenwald E, Macone AB, Goldmann D. Enhancement of neonatal innate defense: effects of adding an N-terminal recombinant fragment of bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein on growth and tumor necrosis factor-inducing activity of gram-negative bacteria tested in neonatal cord blood ex vivo. Infect Immun. 2000 Sep; 68(9):5120-5.
  104. Ofer Levy. A neutrophil-derived anti-infective molecule: bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein [review]. Antimicrobial Agenst and Chemotherapy. 2000; 44:2925-2931.
  105. Levy O, Martin S, Eichenwald E, Ganz T, Valore E, Carroll SF, Lee K, Goldmann D, Thorne GM. Impaired innate immunity in the newborn: newborn neutrophils are deficient in bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein. Pediatrics. 1999 Dec; 104(6):1327-33.
  106. Jerrold Weiss, Peter Elsbach, and Ofer Levy. Oxygen-independent antimicrobial systems of phagocytes. Inflammation: Basic Principles and Clinical Correlates. 1999; 801-817.
  107. Ofer Levy. Therapeutic uses of BPI protein products in BPI-deficient humans. 1999.
  108. Levy O. Antibiotic proteins of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Eur J Haematol. 1996 May; 56(5):263-77.
  109. Ofer Levy. Antibacterial 15 kDa protein isoforms (p15s) of rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes. 1996.
  110. Yvette Weinrauch, Jerrold Weiss, Amy Forman, Kol Zarember, Ofer Levy, and Peter Elsbach. Extracellular accumulation of potently microbicidal bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) and p15s in an evolving sterile rabbit peritoneal inflammatory exudate. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 1995; 95:1916-1924.
  111. Ofer Levy, Chean Eng Ooi, Peter Elsbach, Martin E. Doerfler, Robert I. Lehrer, and Jerrold Weiss. Antibacterial proteins of granulaocytes differ in interaction with endotoxin: comparison of BPI, p15s, and defensins. Journal of Immunology. 1995; 154:5403-5410.
  112. Levy O, Ooi CE, Weiss J, Lehrer RI, Elsbach P. Individual and synergistic effects of rabbit granulocyte proteins on Escherichia coli. J Clin Invest. 1994 Aug; 94(2):672-82.
  113. Peter Elsbach, Jerrold Weiss, and Ofer Levy. Integration of antimicrobial host defenses against Gram-negative bacteria [review]. Trends in Microbiology. 1994; 2:324-328.
  114. Levy O, Weiss J, Ooi CE, Elsbach P. Structural characterization of BPI-modulating 15 kDa proteins from rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes: identification of a novel family of leukocyte proteins. Agents Actions. 1993; 39 Spec No:C207-10.
  115. Ofer Levy, Jerrold Weiss, Kol Zarember, Chean Eng Ooi, and Peter Elsbach. Antibacterial 15 kDa protein isoforms (p15s) are members of a novel family of leukocyte proteins. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1993; 268:6058-6063.
  116. Chean Eng Ooi, Jerrold Weiss, Ofer Levy, and Peter Elsbach. Isolation of two isoforms of a novel 15 kDa protein from rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes that modulates the antibacterial actions of other leukocyte proteins. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1990; 265:15956-15962.
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