Wayne Tworetzky

Wayne Tworetzky, MD

Senior Associate in Cardiology; Director, Fetal Cardiac Imaging; Director, Fetal Cardiology Program

Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School

Medical Services

Specialties

  • Echocardiography
  • Fetal Imaging
  • Cardiology

Departments

  • Cardiology
  • Cardiovascular Program

Languages

  • English

Programs

  • Fetal Cardiology Program
  • Non-Invasive Cardiac Imaging
To schedule an appointment: Call 617-355-7893 or Request an Appointment

Experience and Education

Education

Medical School

University of Stellen Bosch, 1985

Internship

Groote Schuur Hospital, 1989

Residency

University of California, 1993-1995

Residency

Groote Schuur Hospital, 1990-1993

Fellowship

University of California, 1995-1999

San Francisco, CA

Certifications

  • Pediatrics, Pediatric Cardiology

Publications

Publications powered by Harvard Catalyst
  1. Freud LR, Tworetzky W. Fetal interventions for congenital heart disease. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2016 Apr; 28(2):156-62.
  2. Brossard-Racine M, du Plessis A, Vezina G, Robertson R, Donofrio M, Tworetzky W, Limperopoulos C. Brain Injury in Neonates with Complex Congenital Heart Disease: What Is the Predictive Value of MRI in the Fetal Period? AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2016 Jul; 37(7):1338-46.
  3. Moon-Grady AJ, Morris SA, Belfort M, Chmait R, Dangel J, Devlieger R, Emery S, Frommelt M, Galindo A, Gelehrter S, Gembruch U, Grinenco S, Habli M, Herberg U, Jaeggi E, Kilby M, Kontopoulos E, Marantz P, Miller O, Otaño L, Pedra C, Pedra S, Pruetz J, Quintero R, Ryan G, Sharland G, Simpson J, Vlastos E, Tworetzky W, Wilkins-Haug L, Oepkes D. International Fetal Cardiac Intervention Registry: A Worldwide Collaborative Description and Preliminary Outcomes. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015 Jul 28; 66(4):388-99.
  4. Freud LR, Escobar-Diaz MC, Kalish BT, Komarlu R, Puchalski MD, Jaeggi ET, Szwast AL, Freire G, Levasseur SM, Kavanaugh-McHugh A, Michelfelder EC, Moon-Grady AJ, Donofrio MT, Howley LW, Tierney ES, Cuneo BF, Morris SA, Pruetz JD, van der Velde ME, Kovalchin JP, Ikemba CM, Vernon MM, Samai C, Satou GM, Gotteiner NL, Phoon CK, Silverman NH, McElhinney DB, Tworetzky W. Outcomes and Predictors of Perinatal Mortality in Fetuses With Ebstein Anomaly or Tricuspid Valve Dysplasia in the Current Era: A Multicenter Study. Circulation. 2015 Aug 11; 132(6):481-9.
  5. Friedman KG, Freud L, Escobar-Diaz M, Banka P, Emani S, Tworetzky W. Left Ventricular Remodeling and Function in Children with Biventricular Circulation After Fetal Aortic Valvuloplasty. Pediatr Cardiol. 2015 Oct; 36(7):1502-9.
  6. Escobar-Diaz MC, Freud LR, Bueno A, Brown DW, Friedman KG, Schidlow D, Emani S, Del Nido PJ, Tworetzky W. Prenatal diagnosis of transposition of the great arteries over a 20-year period: improved but imperfect. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2015 Jun; 45(6):678-82.
  7. Beroukhim RS, Gauvreau K, Benavidez OJ, Baird CW, LaFranchi T, Tworetzky W. Perinatal outcome after prenatal diagnosis of single-ventricle cardiac defects. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2015 Jun; 45(6):657-63.
  8. Freud LR, Moon-Grady A, Escobar-Diaz MC, Gotteiner NL, Young LT, McElhinney DB, Tworetzky W. Low rate of prenatal diagnosis among neonates with critical aortic stenosis: insight into the natural history in utero. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2015 Mar; 45(3):326-32.
  9. Freud LR, McElhinney DB, Marshall AC, Marx GR, Friedman KG, del Nido PJ, Emani SM, Lafranchi T, Silva V, Wilkins-Haug LE, Benson CB, Lock JE, Tworetzky W. Fetal aortic valvuloplasty for evolving hypoplastic left heart syndrome: postnatal outcomes of the first 100 patients. Circulation. 2014 Aug 19; 130(8):638-45.
  10. Schidlow DN, Tworetzky W, Wilkins-Haug LE. Percutaneous fetal cardiac interventions for structural heart disease. Am J Perinatol. 2014 Aug; 31(7):629-36.
  11. Show all
  12. Escobar-Diaz MC, Friedman K, Salem Y, Marx GR, Kalish BT, Lafranchi T, Rathod RH, Emani S, Geva T, Tworetzky W. Perinatal and infant outcomes of prenatal diagnosis of heterotaxy syndrome (asplenia and polysplenia). Am J Cardiol. 2014 Aug 15; 114(4):612-7.
  13. Donofrio MT, Moon-Grady AJ, Hornberger LK, Copel JA, Sklansky MS, Abuhamad A, Cuneo BF, Huhta JC, Jonas RA, Krishnan A, Lacey S, Lee W, Michelfelder EC, Rempel GR, Silverman NH, Spray TL, Strasburger JF, Tworetzky W, Rychik J. Diagnosis and treatment of fetal cardiac disease: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2014 May 27; 129(21):2183-242.
  14. Friedman KG, Schidlow D, Freud L, Escobar-Diaz M, Tworetzky W. Left ventricular diastolic function and characteristics in fetal aortic stenosis. Am J Cardiol. 2014 Jul 1; 114(1):122-7.
  15. Kalish BT, Tworetzky W, Benson CB, Wilkins-Haug L, Mizrahi-Arnaud A, McElhinney DB, Lock JE, Marshall AC. Technical challenges of atrial septal stent placement in fetuses with hypoplastic left heart syndrome and intact atrial septum. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2014 Jul 1; 84(1):77-85.
  16. Escobar-Diaz MC, Tworetzky W, Friedman K, Lafranchi T, Fynn-Thompson F, Alexander ME, Mah DY. Perinatal outcome in fetuses with heterotaxy syndrome and atrioventricular block or bradycardia. Pediatr Cardiol. 2014 Aug; 35(6):906-13.
  17. Ishii T, McElhinney DB, Harrild DM, Marcus EN, Sahn DJ, Truong U, Tworetzky W. Ventricular strain in fetuses with aortic stenosis and evolving hypoplastic left heart syndrome before and after prenatal aortic valvuloplasty. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2014; 35(1):18-26.
  18. Kalish BT, Banka P, Lafranchi T, Tworetzky W, Del Nido P, Emani SM. Biventricular conversion after single ventricle palliation in patients with small left heart structures: short-term outcomes. Ann Thorac Surg. 2013 Oct; 96(4):1406-12.
  19. Friedman K, Balasubramanian S, Tworetzky W. Midgestation fetal pulmonary annulus size is predictive of outcome in tetralogy of fallot. Congenit Heart Dis. 2014 May-Jun; 9(3):187-93.
  20. Emani SM, McElhinney DB, Tworetzky W, Myers PO, Schroeder B, Zurakowski D, Pigula FA, Marx GR, Lock JE, del Nido PJ. Staged left ventricular recruitment after single-ventricle palliation in patients with borderline left heart hypoplasia. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012 Nov 6; 60(19):1966-74.
  21. Clouchoux C, du Plessis AJ, Bouyssi-Kobar M, Tworetzky W, McElhinney DB, Brown DW, Gholipour A, Kudelski D, Warfield SK, McCarter RJ, Robertson RL, Evans AC, Newburger JW, Limperopoulos C. Delayed cortical development in fetuses with complex congenital heart disease. Cereb Cortex. 2013 Dec; 23(12):2932-43.
  22. Ishii T, Tworetzky W, Harrild DM, Marcus EN, McElhinney DB. Left ventricular function and geometry in fetuses with severe tricuspid regurgitation. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2012 Jul; 40(1):55-61.
  23. Feinstein JA, Benson DW, Dubin AM, Cohen MS, Maxey DM, Mahle WT, Pahl E, Villafañe J, Bhatt AB, Peng LF, Johnson BA, Marsden AL, Daniels CJ, Rudd NA, Caldarone CA, Mussatto KA, Morales DL, Ivy DD, Gaynor JW, Tweddell JS, Deal BJ, Furck AK, Rosenthal GL, Ohye RG, Ghanayem NS, Cheatham JP, Tworetzky W, Martin GR. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome: current considerations and expectations. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012 Jan 3; 59(1 Suppl):S1-42.
  24. Vogel M, Marx GR, Tworetzky W, Cecchin F, Graham D, Mayer JE, Pigula FA, Bacha EA, Del Nido PJ. Ebstein's malformation of the tricuspid valve: short-term outcomes of the "cone procedure" versus conventional surgery. Congenit Heart Dis. 2012 Jan-Feb; 7(1):50-8.
  25. Ishii T, McElhinney DB, Harrild DM, Marcus EN, Sahn DJ, Truong U, Tworetzky W. Circumferential and longitudinal ventricular strain in the normal human fetus. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2012 Jan; 25(1):105-11.
  26. Friedman KG, Margossian R, Graham DA, Harrild DM, Emani SM, Wilkins-Haug LE, McElhinney DB, Tworetzky W. Postnatal left ventricular diastolic function after fetal aortic valvuloplasty. Am J Cardiol. 2011 Aug 15; 108(4):556-60.
  27. Lund AM, Vogel M, Marshall AC, Emani SM, Pigula FA, Tworetzky W, McElhinney DB. Early reintervention on the pulmonary arteries and right ventricular outflow tract after neonatal or early infant repair of truncus arteriosus using homograft conduits. Am J Cardiol. 2011 Jul 1; 108(1):106-13.
  28. Oepkes D, Moon-Grady AJ, Wilkins-Haug L, Tworetzky W, Arzt W, Devlieger R. 2010 Report from the ISPD Special Interest Group fetal therapy: fetal cardiac interventions. Prenat Diagn. 2011 Mar; 31(3):249-51.
  29. Vogel M, McElhinney DB, Wilkins-Haug LE, Marshall AC, Benson CB, Juraszek AL, Silva V, Lock JE, Marx GR, Tworetzky W. Aortic stenosis and severe mitral regurgitation in the fetus resulting in giant left atrium and hydrops: pathophysiology, outcomes, and preliminary experience with pre-natal cardiac intervention. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011 Jan 18; 57(3):348-55.
  30. Moon-Grady AJ, Hirose S, Kesby G, Menahem S, Tworetzky W. The Fetus as a Cardiac Patient: Assessment and Therapy of Cardiovascular Pathology before Birth. Int J Pediatr. 2010; 2010:974520.
  31. McElhinney DB, Vogel M, Benson CB, Marshall AC, Wilkins-Haug LE, Silva V, Tworetzky W. Assessment of left ventricular endocardial fibroelastosis in fetuses with aortic stenosis and evolving hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Am J Cardiol. 2010 Dec 15; 106(12):1792-7.
  32. Friedberg MK, Su X, Tworetzky W, Soriano BD, Powell AJ, Marx GR. Validation of 3D echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular volumes, mass, and ejection fraction in neonates and infants with congenital heart disease: a comparison study with cardiac MRI. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2010 Nov; 3(6):735-42.
  33. McElhinney DB, Tworetzky W, Lock JE. Current status of fetal cardiac intervention. Circulation. 2010 Mar 16; 121(10):1256-63.
  34. Vogel M, Vernon MM, McElhinney DB, Brown DW, Colan SD, Tworetzky W. Fetal diagnosis of interrupted aortic arch. Am J Cardiol. 2010 Mar 1; 105(5):727-34.
  35. Vogel M, McElhinney DB, Marcus E, Morash D, Jennings RW, Tworetzky W. Significance and outcome of left heart hypoplasia in fetal congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Mar; 35(3):310-7.
  36. McElhinney DB, Benson CB, Brown DW, Wilkins-Haug LE, Marshall AC, Zaccagnini L, Tworetzky W. Cerebral blood flow characteristics and biometry in fetuses undergoing prenatal intervention for aortic stenosis with evolving hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Ultrasound Med Biol. 2010 Jan; 36(1):29-37.
  37. Limperopoulos C, Tworetzky W, McElhinney DB, Newburger JW, Brown DW, Robertson RL, Guizard N, McGrath E, Geva J, Annese D, Dunbar-Masterson C, Trainor B, Laussen PC, du Plessis AJ. Brain volume and metabolism in fetuses with congenital heart disease: evaluation with quantitative magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. Circulation. 2010 Jan 5; 121(1):26-33.
  38. Vogel M, Wilkins-Haug LE, McElhinney DB, Marshall AC, Benson CB, Silva V, Tworetzky W. Reversible ductus arteriosus constriction due to maternal indomethacin after fetal intervention for hypoplastic left heart syndrome with intact/restrictive atrial septum. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2010; 27(1):40-5.
  39. Hasan BS, Keane JF, Tworetzky W, Lock JE, Marshall AC. Postnatal angiographic appearance of left ventricular myocardium in fetal patients with aortic stenosis having in-utero aortic valvuloplasty. Am J Cardiol. 2009 Nov 1; 104(9):1271-5.
  40. Emani SM, Bacha EA, McElhinney DB, Marx GR, Tworetzky W, Pigula FA, del Nido PJ. Primary left ventricular rehabilitation is effective in maintaining two-ventricle physiology in the borderline left heart. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2009 Dec; 138(6):1276-82.
  41. McElhinney DB, Marshall AC, Wilkins-Haug LE, Brown DW, Benson CB, Silva V, Marx GR, Mizrahi-Arnaud A, Lock JE, Tworetzky W. Predictors of technical success and postnatal biventricular outcome after in utero aortic valvuloplasty for aortic stenosis with evolving hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Circulation. 2009 Oct 13; 120(15):1482-90.
  42. Tworetzky W, McElhinney DB, Marx GR, Benson CB, Brusseau R, Morash D, Wilkins-Haug LE, Lock JE, Marshall AC. In utero valvuloplasty for pulmonary atresia with hypoplastic right ventricle: techniques and outcomes. Pediatrics. 2009 Sep; 124(3):e510-8.
  43. Peiris V, Singh TP, Tworetzky W, Chong EC, Gauvreau K, Brown DW. Association of socioeconomic position and medical insurance with fetal diagnosis of critical congenital heart disease. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2009 Jul; 2(4):354-60.
  44. Turner CG, Tworetzky W, Wilkins-Haug LE, Jennings RW. Cardiac anomalies in the fetus. Clin Perinatol. 2009 Jun; 36(2):439-49, xi.
  45. Swanson TM, Selamet Tierney ES, Tworetzky W, Pigula F, McElhinney DB. Truncus arteriosus: diagnostic accuracy, outcomes, and impact of prenatal diagnosis. Pediatr Cardiol. 2009 Apr; 30(3):256-61.
  46. Marshall AC, Levine J, Morash D, Silva V, Lock JE, Benson CB, Wilkins-Haug LE, McElhinney DB, Tworetzky W. Results of in utero atrial septoplasty in fetuses with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Prenat Diagn. 2008 Nov; 28(11):1023-8.
  47. Jacobs JP, Rychik J, Tulzer G, Fouron JC, Maulik D, Tworetzky W, Maruszewski B, Acharya G, Huhta JC. A vision for an International Society for Fetal and Perinatal Cardiovascular Disease. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2008 Oct; 20(5):532-7.
  48. Tham EB, Wald R, McElhinney DB, Hirji A, Goff D, Del Nido PJ, Hornberger LK, Nield LE, Tworetzky W. Outcome of fetuses and infants with double inlet single left ventricle. Am J Cardiol. 2008 Jun 1; 101(11):1652-6.
  49. Soriano BD, Hoch M, Ithuralde A, Geva T, Powell AJ, Kussman BD, Graham DA, Tworetzky W, Marx GR. Matrix-array 3-dimensional echocardiographic assessment of volumes, mass, and ejection fraction in young pediatric patients with a functional single ventricle: a comparison study with cardiac magnetic resonance. Circulation. 2008 Apr 8; 117(14):1842-8.
  50. Linguraru MG, Vasilyev NV, Marx GR, Tworetzky W, Del Nido PJ, Howe RD. Fast block flow tracking of atrial septal defects in 4D echocardiography. Med Image Anal. 2008 Aug; 12(4):397-412.
  51. Selamet Tierney ES, Wald RM, McElhinney DB, Marshall AC, Benson CB, Colan SD, Marcus EN, Marx GR, Levine JC, Wilkins-Haug L, Lock JE, Tworetzky W. Changes in left heart hemodynamics after technically successful in-utero aortic valvuloplasty. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Oct; 30(5):715-20.
  52. Mizrahi-Arnaud A, Tworetzky W, Bulich LA, Wilkins-Haug LE, Marshall AC, Benson CB, Lock JE, McElhinney DB. Pathophysiology, management, and outcomes of fetal hemodynamic instability during prenatal cardiac intervention. Pediatr Res. 2007 Sep; 62(3):325-30.
  53. Vida VL, Bacha EA, Larrazabal A, Gauvreau K, Thiagaragan R, Fynn-Thompson F, Pigula FA, Mayer JE, del Nido PJ, Tworetzky W, Lock JE, Marshall AC. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome with intact or highly restrictive atrial septum: surgical experience from a single center. Ann Thorac Surg. 2007 Aug; 84(2):581-5; discussion 586.
  54. Wald RM, Tham EB, McCrindle BW, Goff DA, McAuliffe FM, Golding F, Jaeggi ET, Hornberger LK, Tworetzky W, Nield LE. Outcome after prenatal diagnosis of tricuspid atresia: a multicenter experience. Am Heart J. 2007 May; 153(5):772-8.
  55. Salvin JW, McElhinney DB, Colan SD, Gauvreau K, del Nido PJ, Jenkins KJ, Lock JE, Tworetzky W. Fetal tricuspid valve size and growth as predictors of outcome in pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum. Pediatrics. 2006 Aug; 118(2):e415-20.
  56. Wilkins-Haug LE, Tworetzky W, Benson CB, Marshall AC, Jennings RW, Lock JE. Factors affecting technical success of fetal aortic valve dilation. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Jul; 28(1):47-52.
  57. Mäkikallio K, McElhinney DB, Levine JC, Marx GR, Colan SD, Marshall AC, Lock JE, Marcus EN, Tworetzky W. Fetal aortic valve stenosis and the evolution of hypoplastic left heart syndrome: patient selection for fetal intervention. Circulation. 2006 Mar 21; 113(11):1401-5.
  58. Tworetzky W, del Nido PJ, Powell AJ, Marshall AC, Lock JE, Geva T. Usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging of left ventricular endocardial fibroelastosis in infants after fetal intervention for aortic valve stenosis. Am J Cardiol. 2005 Dec 1; 96(11):1568-70.
  59. Wilkins-Haug LE, Benson CB, Tworetzky W, Marshall AC, Jennings RW, Lock JE. In-utero intervention for hypoplastic left heart syndrome--a perinatologist's perspective. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Oct; 26(5):481-6.
  60. Marshall AC, Tworetzky W, Bergersen L, McElhinney DB, Benson CB, Jennings RW, Wilkins-Haug LE, Marx GR, Lock JE. Aortic valvuloplasty in the fetus: technical characteristics of successful balloon dilation. J Pediatr. 2005 Oct; 147(4):535-9.
  61. McElhinney DB, Salvin JW, Colan SD, Thiagarajan R, Crawford EC, Marcus EN, del Nido PJ, Tworetzky W. Improving outcomes in fetuses and neonates with congenital displacement (Ebstein's malformation) or dysplasia of the tricuspid valve. Am J Cardiol. 2005 Aug 15; 96(4):582-6.
  62. Tworetzky W, Marshall AC. Fetal interventions for cardiac defects. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2004 Dec; 51(6):1503-13, vii.
  63. Tworetzky W, Wilkins-Haug L, Jennings RW, van der Velde ME, Marshall AC, Marx GR, Colan SD, Benson CB, Lock JE, Perry SB. Balloon dilation of severe aortic stenosis in the fetus: potential for prevention of hypoplastic left heart syndrome: candidate selection, technique, and results of successful intervention. Circulation. 2004 Oct 12; 110(15):2125-31.
  64. Marshall AC, van der Velde ME, Tworetzky W, Gomez CA, Wilkins-Haug L, Benson CB, Jennings RW, Lock JE. Creation of an atrial septal defect in utero for fetuses with hypoplastic left heart syndrome and intact or highly restrictive atrial septum. Circulation. 2004 Jul 20; 110(3):253-8.
  65. Padalino MA, Saiki Y, Tworetzky W, del Nido PJ. Pulmonary venous pathway obstruction from recurrent restriction at atrial septum late after Fontan procedure. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2004 Jan; 127(1):281-3.
  66. Tworetzky W, Marshall AC. Balloon valvuloplasty for congenital heart disease in the fetus. Clin Perinatol. 2003 Sep; 30(3):541-50.
  67. Tworetzky W, McElhinney DB, Margossian R, Moon-Grady AJ, Sallee D, Goldmuntz E, van der Velde ME, Silverman NH, Allan LD. Association between cardiac tumors and tuberous sclerosis in the fetus and neonate. Am J Cardiol. 2003 Aug 15; 92(4):487-9.
  68. Lester SJ, McElhinney DB, Viloria E, Reddy GP, Ryan E, Tworetzky W, Schiller NB, Foster E. Effects of losartan in patients with a systemically functioning morphologic right ventricle after atrial repair of transposition of the great arteries. Am J Cardiol. 2001 Dec 1; 88(11):1314-6.
  69. Tworetzky W, McElhinney DB, Reddy VM, Brook MM, Hanley FL, Silverman NH. Improved surgical outcome after fetal diagnosis of hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Circulation. 2001 Mar 6; 103(9):1269-73.
  70. Tworetzky W, Bristow J, Moore P, Brook MM, Segal MR, Brasch RC, Hawgood S, Fineman JR. Inhaled nitric oxide in neonates with persistent pulmonary hypertension. Lancet. 2001 Jan 13; 357(9250):118-20.
  71. Tworetzky W, McElhinney DB, Burch GH, Teitel DF, Moore P. Balloon arterioplasty of recurrent coarctation after the modified Norwood procedure in infants. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2000 May; 50(1):54-8.
  72. McElhinney DB, Reddy VM, Tworetzky W, Petrossian E, Hanley FL, Moore P. Incidence and implications of systemic to pulmonary collaterals after bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis. Ann Thorac Surg. 2000 Apr; 69(4):1222-8.
  73. McElhinney DB, Petrossian E, Tworetzky W, Silverman NH, Hanley FL. Issues and outcomes in the management of supravalvar aortic stenosis. Ann Thorac Surg. 2000 Feb; 69(2):562-7.
  74. Tworetzky W, Moore P, Bekker JM, Bristow J, Black SM, Fineman JR. Pulmonary blood flow alters nitric oxide production in patients undergoing device closure of atrial septal defects. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000 Feb; 35(2):463-7.
  75. McElhinney DB, Tworetzky W, Hanley FL, Rudolph AM. Congenital obstructive lesions of the right aortic arch. Ann Thorac Surg. 1999 Apr; 67(4):1194-202.
  76. Tworetzky W, McElhinney DB, Brook MM, Reddy VM, Hanley FL, Silverman NH. Echocardiographic diagnosis alone for the complete repair of major congenital heart defects. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1999 Jan; 33(1):228-33.
  77. Seddio F, Reddy VM, McElhinney DB, Tworetzky W, Silverman NH, Hanley FL. Multiple ventricular septal defects: how and when should they be repaired? J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1999 Jan; 117(1):134-9; discussion 39-40.
  78. McElhinney DB, Reddy VM, Tworetzky W, Silverman NH, Hanley FL. Early and late results after repair of aortopulmonary septal defect and associated anomalies in infants &lt6 months of age. Am J Cardiol. 1998 Jan 15; 81(2):195-201.
To schedule an appointment: Call 617-355-7893 or Request an Appointment

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