Medical School

  • Harvard Medical School , 1982 , Boston , MA


  • Boston Children's Hospital , 1983 , Boston , MA


  • Boston Children's Hospital , 1985 , Boston , MA


Pediatric Infectious Diseases
  • Boston Children's Hospital , 1988 , Boston , MA

Philosophy of Care

My goal is to provide the best possible care to all children. As a consultant to many other medical teams, I seek to provide information and recommendations regarding infectious disease issues so that the primary team can develop and implement the best diagnostic and management plans for their patients. As a physician working in the knowledge-based subspecialty of infectious diseases, I strive to maintain current knowledge across the discipline. As a member of a large group of exceptional infectious physicians, each of whom has particular areas of expertise, I regularly seek input from colleagues regarding patients with complex illnesses. Recognizing that for many patients the cause of symptoms or illness may not be immediately apparent, I work to develop efficient but thorough evaluations, to maintain an open mind, and to seek input from patients and parents as well as from medical colleagues.


Dr. Robert Husson obtained his MD from Harvard Medical School and completed training in Pediatrics and Pediatric Infectious Diseases at Boston Children’s Hospital. He then served as a Medical Officer in the Pediatric, Adolescent and Maternal AIDS Branch and the Pediatric Oncology Branch at the National Institutes of Health, where he was active in clinical and translational research in Pediatric HIV infection, as well as clinical care of children and adults with HIV and infectious complications of cancer. Since returning to Boston Children’s Hospital, Dr. Husson has been active as an infectious disease clinician and has developed research programs in pediatric HIV and in mycobacterial disease. Dr. Husson is internationally recognized for his work in these areas and is the author of many peer-reviewed articles, reviews and book chapters. Dr. Husson served as the Director of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Fellowship Program, where he developed a formal curriculum for the training program and was responsible for the training of fellows in infectious diseases.

Dr. Robert Husson is a Senior Physician in Medicine and holds the Children’s Hospital Pediatric Associates Endowed Chair in Infectious Diseases at Boston Children’s Hospital, and is Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School.


  • American Board of Pediatrics, General Pediatrics
  • American Board of Pediatrics, Infectious Diseases


Publications powered by Harvard Catalyst Profiles

  1. Angelidou A, Conti MG, Diray-Arce J, Benn CS, Shann F, Netea MG, Liu M, Potluri LP, Sanchez-Schmitz G, Husson R, Ozonoff A, Kampmann B, van Haren SD, Levy O. Licensed Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) formulations differ markedly in bacterial viability, RNA content and innate immune activation. Vaccine. 2020 Jan 24. View abstract
  2. Mir M, Prisic S, Kang CM, Lun S, Guo H, Murry JP, Rubin EJ, Husson RN. Correction for Mir et al., "Mycobacterial Gene cuvA Is Required for Optimal Nutrient Utilization and Virulence". Infect Immun. 2019 Aug; 87(8). View abstract
  3. Barth VC, Zeng JM, Vvedenskaya IO, Ouyang M, Husson RN, Woychik NA. Toxin-mediated ribosome stalling reprograms the Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteome. Nat Commun. 2019 07 10; 10(1):3035. View abstract
  4. Cintrón M, Zeng JM, Barth VC, Cruz JW, Husson RN, Woychik NA. Accurate target identification for Mycobacterium tuberculosis endoribonuclease toxins requires expression in their native host. Sci Rep. 2019 Apr 11; 9(1):5949. View abstract
  5. Carette X, Platig J, Young DC, Helmel M, Young AT, Wang Z, Potluri LP, Moody CS, Zeng J, Prisic S, Paulson JN, Muntel J, Madduri AVR, Velarde J, Mayfield JA, Locher C, Wang T, Quackenbush J, Rhee KY, Moody DB, Steen H, Husson RN. Multisystem Analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Reveals Kinase-Dependent Remodeling of the Pathogen-Environment Interface. mBio. 2018 03 06; 9(2). View abstract
  6. Wang Q, Marchetti R, Prisic S, Ishii K, Arai Y, Ohta I, Inuki S, Uchiyama S, Silipo A, Molinaro A, Husson RN, Fukase K, Fujimoto Y. A Comprehensive Study of the Interaction between Peptidoglycan Fragments and the Extracellular Domain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ser/Thr Kinase PknB. Chembiochem. 2017 11 02; 18(21):2094-2098. View abstract
  7. Singh AK, Carette X, Potluri LP, Sharp JD, Xu R, Prisic S, Husson RN. Investigating essential gene function in Mycobacterium tuberculosis using an efficient CRISPR interference system. Nucleic Acids Res. 2016 Oct 14; 44(18):e143. View abstract
  8. Sharp JD, Singh AK, Park ST, Lyubetskaya A, Peterson MW, Gomes AL, Potluri LP, Raman S, Galagan JE, Husson RN. Comprehensive Definition of the SigH Regulon of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Reveals Transcriptional Control of Diverse Stress Responses. PLoS One. 2016; 11(3):e0152145. View abstract
  9. Schifano JM, Cruz JW, Vvedenskaya IO, Edifor R, Ouyang M, Husson RN, Nickels BE, Woychik NA. tRNA is a new target for cleavage by a MazF toxin. Nucleic Acids Res. 2016 Feb 18; 44(3):1256-70. View abstract
  10. Cruz JW, Sharp JD, Hoffer ED, Maehigashi T, Vvedenskaya IO, Konkimalla A, Husson RN, Nickels BE, Dunham CM, Woychik NA. Growth-regulating Mycobacterium tuberculosis VapC-mt4 toxin is an isoacceptor-specific tRNase. Nat Commun. 2015 Jul 09; 6:7480. View abstract
  11. Prisic S, Hwang H, Dow A, Barnaby O, Pan TS, Lonzanida JA, Chazin WJ, Steen H, Husson RN. Zinc regulates a switch between primary and alternative S18 ribosomal proteins in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mol Microbiol. 2015 Jul; 97(2):263-80. View abstract
  12. Prisic S, Husson RN. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Serine/Threonine Protein Kinases. Microbiol Spectr. 2014 Oct; 2(5). View abstract
  13. Anandan T, Han J, Baun H, Nyayapathy S, Brown JT, Dial RL, Moltalvo JA, Kim MS, Yang SH, Ronning DR, Husson RN, Suh J, Kang CM. Phosphorylation regulates mycobacterial proteasome. J Microbiol. 2014 Sep; 52(9):743-54. View abstract
  14. Mir M, Prisic S, Kang CM, Lun S, Guo H, Murry JP, Rubin EJ, Husson RN. Mycobacterial gene cuvA is required for optimal nutrient utilization and virulence. Infect Immun. 2014 Oct; 82(10):4104-17. View abstract
  15. Schifano JM, Edifor R, Sharp JD, Ouyang M, Konkimalla A, Husson RN, Woychik NA. Mycobacterial toxin MazF-mt6 inhibits translation through cleavage of 23S rRNA at the ribosomal A site. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 May 21; 110(21):8501-6. View abstract
  16. Chou MF, Prisic S, Lubner JM, Church GM, Husson RN, Schwartz D. Using bacteria to determine protein kinase specificity and predict target substrates. PLoS One. 2012; 7(12):e52747. View abstract
  17. Sharp JD, Cruz JW, Raman S, Inouye M, Husson RN, Woychik NA. Growth and translation inhibition through sequence-specific RNA binding by Mycobacterium tuberculosis VapC toxin. J Biol Chem. 2012 Apr 13; 287(16):12835-47. View abstract
  18. Ymele-Leki P, Cao S, Sharp J, Lambert KG, McAdam AJ, Husson RN, Tamayo G, Clardy J, Watnick PI. A high-throughput screen identifies a new natural product with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. PLoS One. 2012; 7(2):e31307. View abstract
  19. Peters JM, Madhavan VL, Kazacos KR, Husson RN, Dangoudoubiyam S, Soul JS. Good outcome with early empiric treatment of neural larva migrans due to Baylisascaris procyonis. Pediatrics. 2012 Mar; 129(3):e806-11. View abstract
  20. Mir M, Asong J, Li X, Cardot J, Boons GJ, Husson RN. The extracytoplasmic domain of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ser/Thr kinase PknB binds specific muropeptides and is required for PknB localization. PLoS Pathog. 2011 Jul; 7(7):e1002182. View abstract
  21. Kang CM, Jahng WJ, Husson RN, Lee SH. A modified immunoblot method to identify substrates of protein kinases. J Microbiol. 2011 Jun; 49(3):499-501. View abstract
  22. Prisic S, Dankwa S, Schwartz D, Chou MF, Locasale JW, Kang CM, Bemis G, Church GM, Steen H, Husson RN. Extensive phosphorylation with overlapping specificity by Mycobacterium tuberculosis serine/threonine protein kinases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Apr 20; 107(16):7521-6. View abstract
  23. Pandey AK, Raman S, Proff R, Joshi S, Kang CM, Rubin EJ, Husson RN, Sassetti CM. Nitrile-inducible gene expression in mycobacteria. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2009 Jan; 89(1):12-6. View abstract
  24. Park ST, Kang CM, Husson RN. Regulation of the SigH stress response regulon by an essential protein kinase in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Sep 02; 105(35):13105-10. View abstract
  25. Zhu L, Phadtare S, Nariya H, Ouyang M, Husson RN, Inouye M. The mRNA interferases, MazF-mt3 and MazF-mt7 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis target unique pentad sequences in single-stranded RNA. Mol Microbiol. 2008 Aug; 69(3):559-69. View abstract
  26. Kang CM, Nyayapathy S, Lee JY, Suh JW, Husson RN. Wag31, a homologue of the cell division protein DivIVA, regulates growth, morphology and polar cell wall synthesis in mycobacteria. Microbiology. 2008 Mar; 154(Pt 3):725-735. View abstract
  27. Song T, Song SE, Raman S, Anaya M, Husson RN. Critical role of a single position in the -35 element for promoter recognition by Mycobacterium tuberculosis SigE and SigH. J Bacteriol. 2008 Mar; 190(6):2227-30. View abstract
  28. Williams DL, Pittman TL, Deshotel M, Oby-Robinson S, Smith I, Husson R. Molecular basis of the defective heat stress response in Mycobacterium leprae. J Bacteriol. 2007 Dec; 189(24):8818-27. View abstract
  29. Husson RN. Leaving on the lights: host-specific derepression of Mycobacterium tuberculosis gene expression by anti-sigma factor gene mutations. Mol Microbiol. 2006 Dec; 62(5):1217-9. View abstract
  30. Raman S, Puyang X, Cheng TY, Young DC, Moody DB, Husson RN. Mycobacterium tuberculosis SigM positively regulates Esx secreted protein and nonribosomal peptide synthetase genes and down regulates virulence-associated surface lipid synthesis. J Bacteriol. 2006 Dec; 188(24):8460-8. View abstract
  31. Hahn MY, Raman S, Anaya M, Husson RN. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis extracytoplasmic-function sigma factor SigL regulates polyketide synthases and secreted or membrane proteins and is required for virulence. J Bacteriol. 2005 Oct; 187(20):7062-71. View abstract
  32. Kang CM, Abbott DW, Park ST, Dascher CC, Cantley LC, Husson RN. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis serine/threonine kinases PknA and PknB: substrate identification and regulation of cell shape. Genes Dev. 2005 Jul 15; 19(14):1692-704. View abstract
  33. Kovacs A, Cowles MK, Britto P, Capparelli E, Fowler MG, Moye J, McIntosh K, Rathore MH, Pitt J, Husson RN. Pharmacokinetics of didanosine and drug resistance mutations in infants exposed to zidovudine during gestation or postnatally and treated with didanosine or zidovudine in the first three months of life. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005 Jun; 24(6):503-9. View abstract
  34. Raman S, Hazra R, Dascher CC, Husson RN. Transcription regulation by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis alternative sigma factor SigD and its role in virulence. J Bacteriol. 2004 Oct; 186(19):6605-16. View abstract
  35. Lerman SJ, Bernardo J, Daly JS, Husson R. Tuberculosis prevention in college students. J Am Coll Health. 2004 Sep-Oct; 53(2):53-8. View abstract
  36. Malley R, Stack AM, Husson RN, Thompson CM, Fleisher GR, Saladino RA. Development of a model of focal pneumococcal pneumonia in young rats. J Immune Based Ther Vaccines. 2004 Jan 23; 2(1):2. View abstract
  37. Song T, Dove SL, Lee KH, Husson RN. RshA, an anti-sigma factor that regulates the activity of the mycobacterial stress response sigma factor SigH. Mol Microbiol. 2003 Nov; 50(3):949-59. View abstract
  38. Raman S, Song T, Puyang X, Bardarov S, Jacobs WR, Husson RN. The alternative sigma factor SigH regulates major components of oxidative and heat stress responses in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Bacteriol. 2001 Oct; 183(20):6119-25. View abstract
  39. Hazra R, Floyd MM, Sloutsky A, Husson RN. Novel mycobacterium related to Mycobacterium triplex as a cause of cervical lymphadenitis. J Clin Microbiol. 2001 Apr; 39(4):1227-30. View abstract
  40. Hazra R, Lee SH, Maslow JN, Husson RN. Related strains of Mycobacterium avium cause disease in children with AIDS and in children with lymphadenitis. J Infect Dis. 2000 Apr; 181(4):1298-303. View abstract
  41. Robson CD, Hazra R, Barnes PD, Robertson RL, Jones D, Husson RN. Nontuberculous mycobacterial infection of the head and neck in immunocompetent children: CT and MR findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1999 Nov-Dec; 20(10):1829-35. View abstract
  42. DeVincenzo JP, Berning SE, Peloquin CA, Husson RN. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis meningitis: clinical problems and concentrations of second-line antituberculous medications. Ann Pharmacother. 1999 Nov; 33(11):1184-8. View abstract
  43. Fernandes ND, Wu QL, Kong D, Puyang X, Garg S, Husson RN. A mycobacterial extracytoplasmic sigma factor involved in survival following heat shock and oxidative stress. J Bacteriol. 1999 Jul; 181(14):4266-74. View abstract
  44. Rubin EJ, Akerley BJ, Novik VN, Lampe DJ, Husson RN, Mekalanos JJ. In vivo transposition of mariner-based elements in enteric bacteria and mycobacteria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Feb 16; 96(4):1645-50. View abstract
  45. Hazra R, Robson CD, Perez-Atayde AR, Husson RN. Lymphadenitis due to nontuberculous mycobacteria in children: presentation and response to therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 1999 Jan; 28(1):123-9. View abstract
  46. Chong CY, Husson RN. Lack of acceptance of guidelines for prevention of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection in infants and children infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1998 Dec; 17(12):1131-5. View abstract
  47. Husson RN. Homologous recombination in Mycobacterium smegmatis. Screening methods for detection of gene replacement. Methods Mol Biol. 1998; 101:199-206. View abstract
  48. Wu QL, Kong D, Lam K, Husson RN. A mycobacterial extracytoplasmic function sigma factor involved in survival following stress. J Bacteriol. 1997 May; 179(9):2922-9. View abstract
  49. Husson RN, Lan Y, Kojima E, Venzon D, Mitsuya H, McIntosh K. Vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: autologous neutralizing antibody, virus load, and virus phenotype. J Pediatr. 1995 Jun; 126(6):865-71. View abstract
  50. Mueller BU, Butler KM, Stocker VL, Balis FM, Brouwers P, Jarosinski P, Husson RN, Lewis LL, Venzon D, Pizzo PA. Clinical and pharmacokinetic evaluation of long-term therapy with didanosine in children with HIV infection. Pediatrics. 1994 Nov; 94(5):724-31. View abstract
  51. Mueller BU, Pizzo PA, Farley M, Husson RN, Goldsmith J, Kovacs A, Woods L, Ono J, Church JA, Brouwers P, et al. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of the combination of zidovudine and didanosine in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Pediatr. 1994 Jul; 125(1):142-6. View abstract
  52. Husson RN, Ross LA, Sandelli S, Inderlied CB, Venzon D, Lewis LL, Woods L, Conville PS, Witebsky FG, Pizzo PA. Orally administered clarithromycin for the treatment of systemic Mycobacterium avium complex infection in children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Pediatr. 1994 May; 124(5 Pt 1):807-14. View abstract
  53. Husson RN, Mueller BU, Farley M, Woods L, Kovacs A, Goldsmith JC, Ono J, Lewis LL, Balis FM, Brouwers P, et al. Zidovudine and didanosine combination therapy in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Pediatrics. 1994 Feb; 93(2):316-22. View abstract
  54. Aldovini A, Husson RN, Young RA. The uraA locus and homologous recombination in Mycobacterium bovis BCG. J Bacteriol. 1993 Nov; 175(22):7282-9. View abstract
  55. Husson RN, Shirasaka T, Butler KM, Pizzo PA, Mitsuya H. High-level resistance to zidovudine but not to zalcitabine or didanosine in human immunodeficiency virus from children receiving antiretroviral therapy. J Pediatr. 1993 Jul; 123(1):9-16. View abstract
  56. Butler KM, Venzon D, Henry N, Husson RN, Mueller BU, Balis FM, Jacobsen F, Lewis LL, Pizzo PA. Pancreatitis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children receiving dideoxyinosine. Pediatrics. 1993 Apr; 91(4):747-51. View abstract
  57. Robert-Guroff M, Roilides E, Muldoon R, Venzon D, Husson R, Marshall D, Gallo RC, Pizzo PA. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 strain MN neutralizing antibody in HIV-infected children: correlation with clinical status and prognostic value. J Infect Dis. 1993 Mar; 167(3):538-46. View abstract
  58. Shirasaka T, Yarchoan R, O'Brien MC, Husson RN, Anderson BD, Kojima E, Shimada T, Broder S, Mitsuya H. Changes in drug sensitivity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 during therapy with azidothymidine, dideoxycytidine, and dideoxyinosine: an in vitro comparative study. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Jan 15; 90(2):562-6. View abstract
  59. Husson RN, Saini R, Lewis LL, Butler KM, Patronas N, Pizzo PA. Cerebral artery aneurysms in children infected with human immunodeficiency virus. J Pediatr. 1992 Dec; 121(6):927-30. View abstract
  60. Mueller BU, Jacobsen F, Butler KM, Husson RN, Lewis LL, Pizzo PA. Combination treatment with azidothymidine and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Pediatr. 1992 Nov; 121(5 Pt 1):797-802. View abstract
  61. Lewis LL, Butler KM, Husson RN, Mueller BU, Fowler CL, Steinberg SM, Pizzo PA. Defining the population of human immunodeficiency virus-infected children at risk for Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection. J Pediatr. 1992 Nov; 121(5 Pt 1):677-83. View abstract
  62. Husson RN, Chung Y, Mordenti J, Butler KM, Chen S, Duliege AM, Brouwers P, Jarosinski P, Mueller BU, Ammann A, et al. Phase I study of continuous-infusion soluble CD4 as a single agent and in combination with oral dideoxyinosine therapy in children with symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Pediatr. 1992 Oct; 121(4):627-33. View abstract
  63. Mueller BU, Butler KM, Higham MC, Husson RN, Montrella KA, Pizzo PA, Feuerstein IM, Manjunath K. Smooth muscle tumors in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Pediatrics. 1992 Sep; 90(3):460-3. View abstract
  64. Butler KM, Husson RN, Lewis LL, Mueller BU, Venzon D, Pizzo PA. CD4 status and P24 antigenemia. Are they useful predictors of survival in HIV-infected children receiving antiretroviral therapy? Am J Dis Child. 1992 Aug; 146(8):932-6. View abstract
  65. Roilides E, Butler KM, Husson RN, Mueller BU, Lewis LL, Pizzo PA. Pseudomonas infections in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1992 Jul; 11(7):547-53. View abstract
  66. Husson RN, Pizzo PA. The use of nucleoside analogues in the treatment of HIV-infected children. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1992 Jun; 8(6):1059-64. View abstract
  67. Butler KM, De Smet MD, Husson RN, Mueller B, Manjunath K, Montrella K, Lovato G, Jarosinski P, Nussenblatt RB, Pizzo PA. Treatment of aggressive cytomegalovirus retinitis with ganciclovir in combination with foscarnet in a child infected with human immunodeficiency virus. J Pediatr. 1992 Mar; 120(3):483-6. View abstract
  68. Whitcup SM, Butler KM, Caruso R, de Smet MD, Rubin B, Husson RN, Lopez JS, Belfort R, Pizzo PA, Nussenblatt RB. Retinal toxicity in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children treated with 2',3'-dideoxyinosine. Am J Ophthalmol. 1992 Jan 15; 113(1):1-7. View abstract
  69. Balis FM, Pizzo PA, Butler KM, Hawkins ME, Brouwers P, Husson RN, Jacobsen F, Blaney SM, Gress J, Jarosinski P, et al. Clinical pharmacology of 2',3'-dideoxyinosine in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children. J Infect Dis. 1992 Jan; 165(1):99-104. View abstract
  70. Mueller BU, Butler KM, Husson RN, Pizzo PA. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia despite prophylaxis in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Pediatr. 1991 Dec; 119(6):992-4. View abstract
  71. Roilides E, Marshall D, Venzon D, Butler K, Husson R, Pizzo PA. Bacterial infections in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected children: the impact of central venous catheters and antiretroviral agents. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1991 Nov; 10(11):813-9. View abstract
  72. Butler KM, Husson RN, Balis FM, Brouwers P, Eddy J, el-Amin D, Gress J, Hawkins M, Jarosinski P, Moss H, et al. Dideoxyinosine in children with symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection. N Engl J Med. 1991 Jan 17; 324(3):137-44. View abstract
  73. Butler KM, Husson RN, Balis FM. Drug trial benefited HIV children. Nurs Times. 1991 Jan 30-Feb 5; 87(5):10. View abstract
  74. Pizzo PA, Butler K, Balis F, Brouwers E, Hawkins M, Eddy J, Einloth M, Falloon J, Husson R, Jarosinski P, et al. Dideoxycytidine alone and in an alternating schedule with zidovudine in children with symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Pediatr. 1990 Nov; 117(5):799-808. View abstract
  75. Husson RN, Comeau AM, Hoff R. Diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus infection in infants and children. Pediatrics. 1990 Jul; 86(1):1-10. View abstract
  76. Husson RN, James BE, Young RA. Gene replacement and expression of foreign DNA in mycobacteria. J Bacteriol. 1990 Feb; 172(2):519-24. View abstract
  77. Boom WH, Husson RN, Young RA, David JR, Piessens WF. In vivo and in vitro characterization of murine T-cell clones reactive to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Infect Immun. 1987 Sep; 55(9):2223-9. View abstract
  78. Husson RN, Young RA. Genes for the major protein antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: the etiologic agents of tuberculosis and leprosy share an immunodominant antigen. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Mar; 84(6):1679-83. View abstract
  79. Oftung F, Mustafa AS, Husson R, Young RA, Godal T. Human T cell clones recognize two abundant Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein antigens expressed in Escherichia coli. J Immunol. 1987 Feb 01; 138(3):927-31. View abstract
  80. Orkin SH, Kolodner R, Michelson A, Husson R. Cloning and direct examination of a structurally abnormal human beta 0-thalassemia globin gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980 Jun; 77(6):3558-62. View abstract