Testing & Diagnosis for Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) in Children

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How is a UTI diagnosed?

Your child's physician may diagnose a urinary tract infection based on a description of symptoms and a physical examination.

Other studies may include a urinalysis (a laboratory examination of urine for various cells and chemicals, such as red blood cells, white blood cells, infection, or excessive protein) and a culture that can detect the presence of an infection.

Further testing

Children with a confirmed urinary tract infection may require further diagnostic testing with a renal and bladder ultrasound. This is a diagnostic imaging technique that uses high-frequency sound waves and a computer to image the urinary tract.

If your child has a fever and a urinary tract infection, one of the following tests may be needed to evaluate the bladder and urethra as well as to detect possible vesicoureteral reflux (in which urine backs up to the kidneys instead of flowing out through the urethra):

  • Voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) — A specific x-ray that examines the urinary tract. The images will show if there is any reverse flow of urine into the ureters and kidneys and how well the bladder empties. It’s also used to determine if there is obstruction in the urethra.
  • Radionuclide cystogram (RNC)— An RNC is similar to a VCUG except a different fluid is used.
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