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There are many ways you can help children and their families get the care they need.
Specific treatment for leg length discrepancy will be determined by your child's orthopedic surgeon based on:
• your child's age, overall health and medical history
• the extent of the discrepancy
• your child's tolerance for specific medications, procedures or therapies
• expectations for the course of the condition
• your opinion or preference
You and your child's feelings about the treatment are extremely important. Some techniques used to equalize leg length are simple and safe, but others, especially lengthening procedures, are complex and have high complication rates. These require strict cooperation by you and your child for success.
Shoe lift can be used to treat discrepancies from two to six cm.
These devices, which are typically used to treat a child who has had to have an amputation, may be satisfactory for some patients with very large discrepancies who would not benefit from other lengthening or shortening procedures.
Shortening procedures - The following procedures, used to shorten the longer leg, may be recommended for some children, in cases where the leg length discrepancy is expected to be between two and six cm at maturity. Shortening is considered safer and results in fewer complications than lengthening procedures:
This procedure slows the rate of growth of the long leg, allowing the short leg to catch up. The operation involves the creation of bony ridge, usually by repositioning a block of bone in the region that tethers the growth plate, preventing future growth. The disadvantages of this procedure include shortened stature, surgery on the unaffected extremity and the irreversibility of the procedure.
This operation is performed to slow the rate of the growth temporarily. Staples are surgically inserted on each side of the growth plate. Once equalization has been achieved, the staples are removed.
This operation, removal of a section of bone to equal out the discrepancy, can be performed in adults or adolescents who are no longer growing.
Lengthening procedures are usually reserved for discrepancies that are more than four cm. While one of the obvious advantages of lengthening is the achievement of a desirable height, it is not always the method of choice because the process used is technically difficult and has a significant rate of complications. Devices used to lengthen bones include external fixators or internal lengthening devices (PRECICE Nail).
A customized apparatus that encircles the leg is surgically attached to the limb that will be lengthened by pins. Limb lengthening correction works on the principle of bone regeneration (osteogenesis) as segments of the bone are pulled apart (distracted).
• A bone is first cut in two during surgery.
• Days after surgery, the two ends of the bone are very gradually pulled apart through continual adjustments to the
apparatus, usually at a rate of one mm per day. This gradual distraction leads to formation of new bone between the
• After the process in complete, and the bone is given a chance to harden, the apparatus is surgically removed.
• A cast or brace may be required for some time for further protection.
The surgeon places a magnetic motorized nail in the bone. The bone is cut and slowly lengthened using an external electro-magnet. The procedure does not correct angular deformities, so if your child requires angular correction, a separate procedure may be required.
Much planning is involved in the early stages of managing a child with a leg length discrepancy.
• Since children are still growing, the goal of treatment is to correct the discrepancy that would be present at
maturity and not the present discrepancy.
• Not all children grow at the same rate, so careful analysis of your child's personal rate of growth is crucial.
• To estimate the discrepancy at maturity, your child's orthopedic surgeon may need to continually take
measurements of your child's growth over a period of one or two years before any surgery can be considered.
The goal of treatment is not always to have legs of equal length. For example, some patients with neuromuscular conditions that involve muscle weakness or paralysis of the short leg may do best with an under-correction of one or two cm. This slight discrepancy allows for clearing of the floor during the swing phase of the walking cycle.
Discrepancies greater than two cm at skeletal maturity usually require some kind of intervention because these will cause limping.
• pin tract infection
• wound infection
• partial dislocation of the hip and knee
• a delayed union of the bone and fatigue fractures after removal of the lengthening apparatus
Physical therapy, designed to stretch muscles and maintain joint flexibility, is an important component to any surgeries used to correct leg length discrepancies. With proper treatment, your child will be able to resume all normal activities.
We are grateful to have been ranked #1 on U.S. News & World Report's list of the best children's hospitals in the nation for the third year in a row, an honor we could not have achieved without the patients and families who inspire us to do our very best for them. Thanks to you, Boston Children's is a place where we can write the greatest children's stories ever told.”