Minimally Invasive Surgery
Laparoscopy is the most common MIS procedure for major operations on the kidney and bladder. It may be performed from the front of the body, the side or the back, depending upon the operation needed and the surgeon's preferences.
Operations most commonly performed using these techniques include:
- Diagnostic operations for testicles in the abdomen
- Orchiopexy (bringing a testis from the abdomen)
- Nephrectomy (removing the kidney)
- Partial nephrectomy (removing part of the kidney)
- Pyeloplasty (correction of kidney obstruction near the kidney)
- Removal of kidney cysts
- Removal of some kinds of stones
- Removal of the ureter along with the kidney, if it is also diseased
- Bladder surgery, particularly for vesicoureteral reflux
Laparoscopy may also be performed with the assistance of a surgical robotic system. This system is performed in a similar way as laparoscopy with small punctures in the abdomen to place instruments with a lighted telescope to see the operation. The instruments, however, are controlled by the surgeon working through a complex computer that permits the movements to be more natural, smooth and delicate.
The surgeon is able to see the operation with a 3-D image, while sitting at a console manipulating the instruments in the patient. The surgeon is in control at all times; the robot simply makes the movements more precise and smooth. This has permitted surgeons to perform very delicate reconstructive operations even in very small children, that would have otherwise been very difficult using conventional laparoscopy.
Many people ask about "laser" surgery, which is simply the use of laser power for some form of surgery. It may be confused for laparoscopic surgery. Lasers are used to break stones when used in an endourological procedure such as ureteroscopy. They may also be used to cauterize blood vessels in special cases within the urinary tract.