Vascular Growth Factors
A number of vascular growth factors have been shown to affect the vasculature. Blood vessels are made up of endothelial cells (EC) and, in the case of larger blood vessels, smooth muscle cells as well. FGF and VEGF stimulate endothelial cell proliferation and migration. HB-EGF stimulates smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration. These vascular growth factors bind to heparin sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG), an important mediator of vascular growth factor activity.