Pulmonary Vein Stenosis Program | Conditions and Treatments


Edema refers to swelling in the body’s tissues caused by a build up of fluid, most often in the feet, ankles, face, eyelids or abdomen. It can have many causes, including: sitting or standing in one

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Cyanosis is a bluish color in the skin, lips and nailbeds caused by a shortage of oxygen in the blood. Some of the defects or diseases that can cause a child to have cyanosis are: truncus arteriosus

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Pulmonary Hypertension

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is abnormally high blood pressure that occurs in the arteries of the lungs (the pulmonary arteries). Some cases of PH have no identifiable cause (idiopathic pulmonary

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Pulmonary Vein Stenosis

"We're thinking not only in terms of getting the child through a procedure today, but also of how life might be for that child at age 50, 60, 70. How do we plan their management over many decades? It

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Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPVR)

Total or partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR or PAPVR) is a rare heart defect in which a child’s pulmonary veins don’t connect normally to the left atrium. Instead they’re re-directed to

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