Conditions and Treatments from the Division of Newborn Medicine


Overview Anencephaly is a condition present at birth that affects the formation of your baby's brain and the skull bones that surround her head. Anencephaly results in only minimal development of the...

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Apnea of Prematurity

Overview Apnea refers to what happens when a child doesn’t breathe for more than 20 seconds. It is more common in premature babies than in full-term babies. The more premature the baby, the greater...

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Birth Defects and Congenital Anomalies

What are birth defects and congenital anomalies? About 3 to 4 percent of babies are born with some type of birth defect. A birth defect is a health problem or a physical abnormality. It can be very...

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Blocked Tear Duct (Dacryostenosis)

Overview Tears are produced in the lacrimal gland, located under the bone of the eyebrow, and flow over the eye through tiny ducts along the eyelid. After draining away from the eye through two small...

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Chronic Lung Disease of Prematurity

Long-term respiratory problems faced by babies born prematurely are known, generally, as either chronic lung disease (CLD) or bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Some premature babies require the use of a...

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Overview Colic is a problem that affects some babies during the first three to four months after they're born. If your child is healthy but cries or is fussy for long periods of time with no apparent...

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Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)

Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a group of abnormalities that occur in babies born to mothers who consume alcohol during pregnancy. It is the most common known non-genetic (in other words, non...

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Hemolytic Disease

What is hemolytic disease of the newborn? Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) – also called erythroblastosis fetalis – is a blood disorder that occurs when the blood types of a mother and baby are...

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Hyperbilirubinemia and Jaundice

Hyperbilirubinemia is a condition in which there is too much bilirubin in your baby’s blood. When red blood cells break down, a substance called bilirubin is formed. Babies are not easily able to get...

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Overview Hypocalcemia is a condition in which there is too little calcium in a baby's blood. A common form of hypocalcemia in babies is called neonatal hypocalcemia. This condition may occur at...

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Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome (Hyaline Membrane Disease)

Overview Hyaline membrane disease (HMD), also called respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), is a condition that causes babies to need extra oxygen and help breathing. HMD is one of the most common...

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Intraventricular Hemorrhage

Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is bleeding inside or around the ventricles—spaces in the brain that contain the protective cerebral spinal fluid. IVH is most common in premature babies, especially...

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Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS)

Overview Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a term for a group of problems a baby experiences when withdrawing from exposure to narcotics. It's estimated that 3 to 50 percent of newborn babies have...

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Nursing Bottle Caries

Overview Nursing caries, or tooth decay, can be caused when your child sleeps with a bottle. This condition is also called baby bottle tooth decay. It is caused when a child goes to bed with a bottle...

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Phimosis and Paraphimosis

What is phimosis and paraphimosis? Phimosis is a constriction of the opening of the foreskin so that it cannot be drawn back over the tip of the penis. This condition is a normal occurrence in the...

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Respiratory Distress

Learning the signs of respiratory distress If your child is having difficulty breathing, she may show signs of being in danger of respiratory distress. It is important to learn these signs to know how...

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Red Blood Cell Disorders

Red blood cell disorders are blood disorders that impact the red blood cells, the parts of the blood that carry oxygen from the lungs to all parts of the body. Treatment of red blood cell disorders,...

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Reye Syndrome

Reye syndrome is a rare condition that affects the normal chemical balance in the body, resulting in potential damage to all organs, but primarily the brain and liver. As the inflammation in the brain...

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Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn

Transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN) is a term for a mild respiratory problem of babies that begins after birth and lasts about three days. Other terms for TTN are "wet lungs" or type II...

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