Department of Cardiac Surgery | Conditions and Treatments

Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPVR or PAPVR)

"The care of critically ill infants with obstructed anomalous pulmonary venous return requires a multidisciplinary team of cardiac ICU doctors and nurses, non-invasive cardiologists and surgeons to...

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Aortic valve stenosis

What is aortic valve stenosis? The term “stenosis” describes an abnormal narrowing within a structure of the body. Aortic valve stenosis, therefore, refers to the narrowing of the heart’s aortic valve...

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Arrhythmia

What is an arrhythmia? An arrhythmia is an abnormal rhythm of the heart, which can cause the heart to pump less effectively. It most often occurs in adults but can also occur in children. Some...

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Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)

What is an atrial septal defect? An atrial septal defect (ASD) is a hole in the wall that separates the upper right and left heart collecting chambers (atria). “Atrial” is the name we give to the...

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Atrioventricular Canal Defect

What is atrioventricular canal defect? An atrioventricular canal defect or AV canal is a combination of several closely-associated heart problems that result in a large defect in the center of the...

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Bacterial Endocarditis

What is bacterial endocarditis? Bacterial endocarditis is an infection of the lining of the heart. It occurs when bacteria (germs) enter the bloodstream and lodge inside the heart, where they multiply...

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Cardiac Tumor

What is a cardiac tumor? A cardiac tumor is a rare, abnormal growth that develops in the heart. The majority of cardiac tumors in children are benign, meaning they are non-cancerous and are unlikely...

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Cardiomyopathy

What is cardiomyopathy? Cardiomyopathy is a disease of the heart muscle characterized by an abnormally large, thick or stiff heart muscle. It may affect only the heart’s lower chambers (ventricles) or...

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Coarctation of the Aorta

What is coarctation of the aorta? Coarctation of the aorta is a narrowing of the aorta, the main artery that delivers oxygen-rich (red) blood to the body. A coarctation is located just past the aortic...

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Heart Failure

"We make a commitment to our patients that we will leave no stone unturned to take care of a child with a heart condition. We will think outside the box, and we will look into any possible option that...

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Congenital Heart Defects

What is a congenital heart defect? A congenital heart defect is a structural problem of the heart that develops during pregnancy. About 1 out of 100 babies are born with a congenital heart defect....

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Coronary Artery Fistula

A coronary artery fistula is an abnormal connection between one of the coronary arteries and a heart chamber or another blood vessel. Coronary artery fistula is a rare condition. Infants who are born...

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Double Outlet Right Ventricle (DORV)

What is double outlet right ventricle? Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a rare congenital heart defect, meaning it’s a condition a baby is born with. In DORV, the pulmonary artery and the aorta...

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Ebstein's anomaly

What is Ebstein’s anomaly? Ebstein’s anomaly is a rare heart defect that affects the tricuspid valve. Ebstein’s anomaly has a wide range of severity — from mild to severe. About one in 10,000 babies...

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Fragile X Syndrome

What is fragile X syndrome? Fragile X syndrome is a genetic condition that can cause a range of learning and developmental problems. These can include: intellectual disability hyperactivity or...

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Heart Murmur

A heart murmur is an extra or unusual sound heard during a heartbeat. Murmurs range from quite faint to very loud. There are two types of heart murmurs: innocent (harmless) and abnormal. People who...

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Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS)

What is hypoplastic left heart syndrome? Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) represents a spectrum of heart diseases in which the left-heart structures are underdeveloped. These structures include...

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Pericarditis

What is pericarditis? Pericarditis is an inflammation of the pericardium, the sac-like tissue layer that surrounds the heart. It can cause chest pain that is often sudden and short-lived. When the...

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Patent Ductus Arteriosus

What is patent ductus arteriosus? Patent ductus arteriosus is a congenital heart condition where there is a persistent connection between the pulmonary artery and the aorta. This causes blood to mix...

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Pulmonary Atresia

What is pulmonary atresia? Pulmonary atresia is type of heart defect that a baby is born with. It occurs when the pulmonary valve — normally located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary...

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Perichondritis

Overview Perichondritis is an infection of the skin and tissue surrounding the cartilage of the outer ear. Perichondritis is usually caused by injury to the ear as a result of: ear piercing sports...

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Pulmonary Hypertension

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is abnormally high blood pressure that occurs in the arteries of the lungs (the pulmonary arteries). Some cases of PH have no identifiable cause (idiopathic pulmonary...

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Septal Defects

What is a septal defect? A septal defect is a hole in the septum, which is the muscle wall that separates the heart's left and right chambers. A septal defect is sometimes called "a hole in the heart....

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Single Ventricle Defects

What is a single ventricle defect? A single ventricle defect is a type of heart defect that a child is born with. It occurs when one of the two pumping chambers in the heart, called ventricles, isn’t...

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Syncope

What is syncope? Syncope is the medical term for fainting. It’s a temporary loss of consciousness that occurs when not enough blood goes to the brain. Syncope can affect people of all ages, from...

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Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)

What is tetralogy of Fallot? Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is a serious, congenital heart defect, affecting about two in 10,000 babies. In TOF, the abnormal connections prevent enough oxygen-poor (blue)...

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Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) with Pulmonary Atresia

What is tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia? Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) with pulmonary atresia is a more severe form of TOF, a type of heart defect. It’s a congenital condition, which means it’s...

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Transposition of the Great Arteries (TGA)

What is transposition of the great arteries? In transposition of the great arteries (TGA), the “great” arteries, the aorta and the right ventricle, are reversed in their origins from the heart. The...

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Tricuspid Atresia

What is tricuspid atresia? Tricuspid atresia is a congenital heart defect, occurring in two out of every 10,000 live births. Relatively rare, it accounts for about 1 to 2 percent of all cases of...

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Truncus Arteriosis

What is truncus arteriosus? Truncus arteriosus is a heart defect in which a single artery instead of two (truncus arteriosus) carries blood from the heart. It’s a congenital condition, meaning a baby...

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Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)

What is a ventricular septal defect? A ventricular septal defect (VSD) is a hole in the wall that separates the lower right and left heart chambers (ventricles). It is the most common type of...

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