Department of Neurology | Conditions and Treatments

Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM)

Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) involves a brief but intense attack of inflammation (swelling) in the brain and spinal cord that damages the brain's myelin. Myelin is the protective...

Learn more
Acute Transverse Myelitis

Acute Transverse Myelitis (ATM) involves a brief but intense attack of inflammation (swelling) in the spinal cord that damages myelin. Myelin is the protective covering of nerve fibers. Myelin is also...

Learn more
Anencephaly

Overview Anencephaly is a condition present at birth that affects the formation of your baby's brain and the skull bones that surround her head. Anencephaly results in only minimal development of the...

Learn more
Aneurysms

Angiogram showing a high-resolution view of an aneurysm. Sometimes the wall of an artery in the brain develops a weak spot, and the vessel bulges outward. This is known as a cerebral aneurysm....

Learn more
Apert Syndrome

What is Apert Syndrome? Apert syndrome, also known as acrocephalosyndactyly, is a genetic disorder characterized by deformities of the skull, face and limbs. Apert syndrome may include:...

Learn more
Apnea of Prematurity

Overview Apnea refers to what happens when a child doesn’t breathe for more than 20 seconds. It is more common in premature babies than in full-term babies. The more premature the baby, the greater...

Learn more
Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Is your son a constant bundle of energy … always moving, unable to sit still, even for a few moments? Is your daughter easily distracted and forgetful, tending to frequently “have her head in the...

Learn more
Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumor (ATRT)

An atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a very rare, aggressive tumor of the central nervous system, occurring mostly in the cerebellum (the part of the brain that controls movement and balance...

Learn more
Autism Spectrum Disorder

What is autism spectrum disorder (ASD)? What does it mean if a child is “on the spectrum”? Can autism be treated? Will my child always have it? What supports can help our family? While there’s...

Learn more
Autoimmune Diseases

If it weren’t for the immune system—the human body’s natural defense against outside invaders—we would be sick all the time. This complex network of cells, organs and molecules fights off things like...

Learn more
Anaplastic Astrocytoma

Overview Astrocytomas are tumors that arise from brain cells called astrocytes, which are a type of glial cell. An anaplastic astrocytoma is a high-grade (malignant) glioma, originating from the glial...

Learn more
Bacterial Meningitis

Overview Meningitis is an infection that causes inflammation of the three thin layers of tissue, known as meninges, which cover the brain and spinal cord. Meningitis may be caused by a virus or by...

Learn more
Bedwetting (Nocturnal Enuresis)

Nocturnal enuresis, better known as bedwetting, occurs when a sleeping child cannot hold his or her urine at night. Don't worry—most of the time the situation resolves on its own. Some children don't...

Learn more
Birth Defects and Congenital Anomalies

A birth defect is a health problem or a physical abnormality that a baby has at birth. It can be very mild or severe. Some birth defects are life-threatening, in which case a baby may only live for a...

Learn more
Bowlegs

Children with bowlegs, when standing straight with toes pointed forward, have ankles that touch but knees that do not. Bowlegs is a condition involving the shin and thigh (tibia and femur) bones....

Learn more
Brain arteriovenous malformations

The Cerebrovascular Surgery and Interventions Center treats arteriovenous malformations of the brain and other cerebrovascular conditions. Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are errors in blood vessel...

Learn more
Cavernous malformations

What is a cavernous malformation? A cavernous malformation is a small mass that is made up of abnormal, thin-walled blood vessels. These malformations are sometimes called cavernomas, cavernous...

Learn more
Brain Tumors

Today, more than 50 percent of all children diagnosed with a pediatric brain tumor will be cured of the disease. Tumors are masses of abnormal cells that can appear in all parts of the body and grow...

Learn more
Bullying

Bullying is a serious societal issue that can have long-lasting effects on both the victim and the bully. Recognizing and knowing how to address bullying is the first step to prevention. Here are some...

Learn more
Brain PET/CT

Brain Positron Emission Tomography — also called a brain PET/CT scan — is a safe, effective and non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that provides highly detailed images of the brain. A brain PET...

Learn more
Brain Scan

A brain Scan is a diagnostic imaging technique that provides images of blood flow in the brain. It can detect changes in blood flow within the brain that cannot be seen with other imaging methods. How...

Learn more
Cat Scratch Disease

Cat scratches and bites can cause cat scratch disease, a bacterial infection carried in cat saliva. The bacteria are passed from a cat to a human after the cat licks its paws then scratches human skin...

Learn more
Choroid Plexus Brain Tumor

Choroid plexus brain tumors arise from the choroid plexus, tissue located in the spaces of the brain called ventricles. This tissue makes cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the fluid that surrounds the brain...

Learn more
Concussions

You’ve probably heard about athletes having a concussion and needing to sit out a game or even the rest of the season. But concussions happen to plenty of non-athletes, too. In fact, millions of...

Learn more
Congenital Toxoplasmosis

Overview You’re likely to be confused and overwhelmed—not to mention scared—if your infant has been diagnosed with congenital toxoplasmosis. But you can play an active role in helping him get better....

Learn more
Cerebral Palsy (CP)

What is Cerebral Palsy? Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common physical disability of childhood. The term CP itself is an umbrella term for a group of disorders that affect body movement and posture...

Learn more
Craniopharyngioma

A craniopharyngioma is a tumor of the brain that commonly affects children. The tumor grows in the area of the pituitary gland and the optic nerves, and frequently grows up into the base of your child...

Learn more
Deep Brain Stimulation

Boston Children’s Hospital is now offering deep brain stimulation (DBS) for children with primary dystonia, a type of movement disorder in which faulty brain signals cause involuntary muscle...

Learn more
Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH)

What is hip dysplasia? Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), also known as hip dysplasia, is a congenital condition in which the hip joint doesn’t develop normally. DDH ranges from a minor laxity ...

Learn more
Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma (DIPG)

Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG) are highly aggressive and difficult to treat brain tumors found at the base of the brain. They are glial tumors, meaning they arise from the brain's glial...

Learn more
Condition
Down Syndrome

Medical treatments and developmental and educational therapies can help children with Down syndrome reach their fullest potential. When you have a child with Down syndrome, we understand that you may...

Learn more
Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT)

If your child has been experiencing seizures that don’t respond to medication, a possible cause may be a dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT). This is a rare, benign type of tumor that occurs...

Learn more
Dysphagia

Dysphagia is a term that means "difficulty swallowing." It is the inability of food or liquids to pass easily from the mouth, into the throat, and down into the esophagus to the stomach during the...

Learn more
Dyslexia

What is dyslexia? Many children with learning problems in school have trouble with reading and/or writing. If the trouble is severe enough, it may be diagnosed as a “specific learning disorder in...

Learn more
Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE)

Avoiding insect bites: what parents should know Read more about preventing mosquito bites in the article Insect spread illnesses on the rise: how to protect your family posted on Thriving, Boston...

Learn more
Encephalitis

"Children with encephalitis may benefit from the brain's plasticity during the childhood years. This means that often when one area of a child's brain is damaged, a different area of the brain can...

Learn more
Ependymoma

An ependymoma is a tumor that arises from cells that are found lining the ventricular system (areas of the brain or spinal cord where spinal fluid is found). Ependymomas can form in any of the...

Learn more
Epilepsy

Laser Therapy for Pediatric Epilepsy Boston Children’s Hospital is one of a handful of centers offering a new, minimally invasive laser therapy for childhood epilepsy to remove tumors or diseased...

Learn more
Electroencephalograms

An electroencephalogram (EEG) is a neurophysiologic technique primarily used in the evaluation of epilepsy (or possible epilepsy), but it may also be recommended for headaches, behavioral disturbances...

Learn more
Electromyography and Nerve Conduction Velocity

About Electromyography and Nerve Conduction Velocity All of our nerves and muscles use electricity to get things done. In fact, you can think of your body as a machine with incredibly intricate wiring...

Learn more
Evoked Potentials

Evoked Potentials (or EPs) measure electrical activity produced by external stimuli, like light flashes or sound clicks. EPs are done to test the auditory pathways (brain stem auditory evoked...

Learn more
Facial Nerve Paralysis

Learn more about Facial Nerve Paralysis and Facial Reanimation from Amir Taghinia, MD...

Learn more
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)

Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a group of abnormalities that occur in babies born to mothers who consume alcohol during pregnancy. It is the most common known non-genetic (in other words, non...

Learn more
Fragile X Syndrome

What is fragile X syndrome? Fragile X syndrome is a genetic condition that can cause a range of learning and developmental problems. These can include: intellectual disability hyperactivity or...

Learn more
Ganglioglioma

A ganglioglioma is low-grade tumor of mixed cell type. This type of tumor contains properties of both glial cells (responsible for providing the structural support of the central nervous system) and...

Learn more
Genetic Disorders

Overview Genetic disorders include congenital malformations, chromosomal disorders and metabolic diseases, also known as inborn errors of metabolism. Some of the symptoms can be the same as those for...

Learn more
Giant Cell Tumor

Overview A giant cell tumor is a benign solitary tumor that usually grows in the ends of long bones, and contains unusually large cells that are called giant cells. Most commonly occur in the femur ...

Learn more
Glioblastoma multiforme

Glioblastoma Multiformes (GBMs) are high-grade gliomas that arise from the brain’s supportive tissue, known as glial cells. These are aggressive tumors that rapidly infiltrate adjacent healthy brain...

Learn more
Condition
Glioma

A glioma is a kind of brain tumor that originates from glial cells, which support and nourish neurons in the brain. Gliomas account for about 25 percent of childhood cancers, and most gliomas are both...

Learn more
Condition
Gliomatosis Cerebri

Gliomatosis cerebri is a highly aggressive, rare form of malignant astrocytic tumor. It most commonly presents as a diffusely infiltrating glial tumor of the cerebral cortex. Glial means that it...

Learn more
Guillain Barre Syndrome

What is Guillain-Barré syndrome? Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) occurs when the immune system attacks the peripheral nervous system — the system of nerves that run though the body, outside the brain...

Learn more
Genetic Testing

What kinds of prenatal testing are available at Boston Children's? We offer fetal imaging to look for growth or structural abnormalities. Three to 4 percent of babies are born with some form of major...

Learn more
Head or Brain Injury

What is a head injury? “Head injury” is a broad term that describes many different types of conditions—ranging from bumps and bruises to concussions, skull fractures and serious brain injuries. While...

Learn more
Headaches

Overview "I can't tell you how thrilled I am. It's like I have a new daughter, seeing her go from where she was last year to where she is now. Nothing has given me greater happiness." - Mom of an 11...

Learn more
Heat Cramps Exhaustion and Stroke

Overview Exposure to abnormal or prolonged amounts of heat and humidity without relief or adequate fluids can cause various types of heat-related illness. Children and adolescents adjust more slowly...

Learn more
Hemifacial Microsomia

What is Hemifacial microsomia? Hemifacial microsomia (HFM), also called craniofacial microsomia or sometimes "Goldenhar syndrome" is a condition in which half of one side of the face is underdeveloped...

Learn more
Henoch-Schonlein Purpura (HSP)

Overview Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) is a form of vasculitis, a condition that involves inflammation of the blood vessels. It’s one of the most common forms of vasculitis in childhood. HSP is seen...

Learn more
Intraventricular Hemorrhage

Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is bleeding inside or around the ventricles—spaces in the brain that contain the protective cerebral spinal fluid. IVH is most common in premature babies, especially...

Learn more
Intrathecal baclofen therapy

Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy is a treatment option for children with severe spasticity (tight, stiff muscles that make movement difficult or uncontrollable) or secondary dystonia (involuntary...

Learn more
Landau-Kleffner Syndrome

What is Landau-Kleffner syndrome? Landau-Kleffner Syndrome (LKS) is a rare neurological disorder that causes a loss of language skills (aphasia). It can happen either suddenly or gradually. LKS...

Learn more
Learning Disorders and Disabilities

The terms “learning disorder” (used by the medical community) and “specific learning disability” (used by the schools) refer to a neurodevelopmental problem in which a child of normal intellectual...

Learn more
Low birthweight in newborns

Babies are weighed within the first few hours after birth. The weight is compared with the baby's gestational age and recorded in the medical record. A birthweight less than 5 pounds, 8 ounces is...

Learn more
Low Grade Gliomas

Low-grade gliomas are brain tumors that originate from glial cells, which support and nourish neurons in the brain. Glial tumors, or gliomas, are divided into four grades, depending on their cells'...

Learn more
Condition
Lyme Disease

"Individualized evaluation is the optimal approach for treating a patient with Lyme disease. Most cases of Lyme disease resolve with a finite course of antibiotics.” --Catherine Lachenauer, MD, Boston...

Learn more
Lymphoblastic Lymphoma

Lymphoblastic lymphoma is a cancer of immature lymphocytes, cells of the immune system, called lymphoblasts. It is a form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Lymphoblastic lymphoma primarily affects children and...

Learn more
Condition
Macrodactyly

Macrodactyly is an uncommon condition in which a baby’s toes or fingers are abnormally large due to the overgrowth of the underlying bone and soft tissue. The condition is congenital, meaning babies...

Learn more
Malignant Rhabdoid Tumor

Malignant rhabdoid tumor is a rare childhood tumor that commonly starts in the kidneys but also can occur in other soft tissues or in the brain, where it is referred to as atypical teratoid/rhabdoid...

Learn more
Condition
Marfan Syndrome

"My message to the public is if you notice common findings of Marfan in yourself or your child, these need to be evaluated right away--especially with an eye or cardiology exam." --Ronald Lacro, MD,...

Learn more
Medulloblastoma

Medulloblastoma is a brain tumor located in the cerebellum, the part of the brain that controls balance, coordination, and other complex motor functions. Medulloblastoma accounts for 15 to 20 percent...

Learn more
Meningioma

A meningioma is a benign (non-cancerous) tumor originating from the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. Meningiomas can occur in any age group. They affect 2 in 100,000 people, but are much...

Learn more
Meningitis

Meningitis is a bacterial or viral infection that causes three thin layers of tissue that surround the brain and the spinal cord to swell. Doctors at Boston Children's Hospital have been leaders and...

Learn more
Meningococcal Infections

Overview Meningococcal infections are caused by a group of bacteria called Neisseria meningitidis. The most common forms of meningococcal infections include meningitis (infection of the membranes that...

Learn more
Microcephaly

What is microcephaly? When a child has microcephaly, the brain develops abnormally, causing the head to be much smaller than expected for the child's age. ("Micro" means "small," while "cephaly" comes...

Learn more
Mitochondrial Disease

Mitochondrial disease is not a single disorder but an umbrella term for dozens of individual disorders in which the body’s cells have problems producing energy. Together, these disorders affect...

Learn more
Movement disorders

Children with movement disorders have unwanted movements or trouble moving in the way they intend to. The term “movement disorders” is broad and includes a wide variety of conditions with a wide...

Learn more
Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

At Boston Children’s Hospital, we have already helped many children cope with their multiple sclerosis (MS). Once considered to be a strictly “adult” condition, MS is now being diagnosed more often in...

Learn more
Muscle Weakness (Hypotonia)

Hypotonia means decreased muscle tone. It can be a condition on its own, called benign congenital hypotonia, or it can be indicative of another problem where there is progressive loss of muscle tone,...

Learn more
Muscular Dystrophy (MD)

What is muscular dystrophy? Muscular dystrophy is a general name for a group of rare diseases that cause muscle weakness. It is caused by mutations in certain genes. There are more than 30 different...

Learn more
Myasthenia Gravis

What is myasthenia gravis? Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease that causes the muscles, especially in the eyes, mouth, throat and limbs, to weaken after periods of activity. The weakness...

Learn more
Myelodysplastic Syndrome in Children

Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a rare disease of the blood, only occurring in four out of every 1 million children. This rare disease keeps the body from properly producing blood cells and...

Learn more
MRI with Anesthesia

MRI is a routine diagnostic imaging exam that uses a large magnet, radio waves, and a computer to produce 2- and 3-dimensional images of the body's organs, tissues, and bones. An MRI scan is: Often...

Learn more
Nervous System Disorders

Overview The nervous system is a complex, sophisticated system that regulates and coordinates body activities. It is made up of two major divisions: Central nervous system - consisting of the brain...

Learn more
Neuroblastoma

Neuroblastoma is a cancerous tumor that begins in nerve tissue of very young children, usually beginning in the abdomen or adrenal glands. Abnormal nerve cells may be present before birth, but the...

Learn more
Neurocutaneous Syndromes

It can be hard to find accurate information about some neurocutaneous syndromes simply because they’re relatively rare.They affect from 1 in 3,000 (neurofibromatosis) children to 1 in close to 50,000 ...

Learn more
Neurofibromatosis

Whether there’s a family history of neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) or the diagnosis comes straight out of the blue, no parents are ever ready to learn that their child has a chronic and unpredictable...

Learn more
Neurofibromatosis Type 2

"The fear of the unknown is a big concern in those with neurofibromatosis type 2. Although nothing can be predicted with absolute certainty, most individuals with NF2 can lead relatively normal and...

Learn more
Neurogenic Bladder

A common concern of parents whose children have been diagnosed with neurogenic bladder dysfunction is the question: “Will my child still be in diapers when he’s school age?” The short answer is: most...

Learn more
Neuromuscular Scoliosis

If your child has been diagnosed with neuromuscular scoliosis, we know that you and your family are under stress, and are already dealing with the underlying neuromuscular condition that’s associated...

Learn more
Neurocritical Care

What is neurocritical care? When a child is hospitalized in the intensive care unit—whether because of trauma, a serious neurological condition or another life-threatening illness or injury—her...

Learn more
Neurological Diagnostic Tests

Evaluating and diagnosing damage to the nervous system—which consists of the brain, the spinal cord and the nerves from these areas—is complicated and complex. But thanks to advances in science, we...

Learn more
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)

What is obstructive sleep apnea? If your child snores or has trouble breathing at night, he or she may not just be a noisy sleeper. It could be a sign of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a condition in...

Learn more
Oligodendroglioma

An oligodendroglioma is a low-grade (relatively benign) tumor arising from a type of cell of the central nervous system known as an oligodendrocyte. Oligodendrocytes make up a supportive network for...

Learn more
Optic Neuritis (ON)

Optic neuritis (ON) involves an attack of inflammation (swelling) in your optic nerve, which sends information from your eye to your brain about what you are seeing. In ON, there is damage to myelin,...

Learn more
Optic Pathway Glioma

An optic pathway glioma (also called an optic nerve glioma) is a slow-growing brain tumor that arises in or around the optic nerve, which connects the eye to the brain. As the tumor progresses, it...

Learn more
Osteoblastoma

Osteoblastoma is a benign, bone-forming tumor that is extremely rare, accounting for only 1 percent of all primary bone tumors. Unlike most primary bone tumors, which favor the extremities,...

Learn more
Parkes Weber Syndrome

What is Parkes Weber syndrome (PWS)? PWS is an exceptionally rare congenital (present at birth) vascular anomaly that results in a child having a large number of abnormal blood vessels. It’s similar...

Learn more
Childhood Cancers

While childhood cancer is a potentially life-threatening condition requiring intensive treatment, the majority of pediatric cancers are treatable. Thanks to recent advances in therapies, many forms of...

Learn more
Pediatric epilepsy and seizure disorder

I think my child is having a seizure. What do I do? Epilepsy is a brain condition that makes a child susceptible to seizures. Seizures result from abnormal electrical activity in the brain: Some parts...

Learn more
Pediatric Lupus (Systemic Lupus Erythmatosus)

What is lupus? Like all autoimmune diseases, lupus causes the immune system — our natural protection against foreign invaders like viruses and bacteria—to mistakenly attack the body itself. What makes...

Learn more
Pediatric Neurological Examination

"Our researchers are evolving increasingly sophisticated MRI technology that's helping us gain a better understanding of cognitive disorders in children." ---- David K. Urion, MD, Director, Learning...

Learn more
Pfeiffer Syndrome

What is Pfeiffer Syndrome? Pfeiffer syndrome is a complex genetic disorder in which certain bones in the skull fuse (join together) early in their development. This prevents the skull from growing...

Learn more
PHACE Syndrome

PHACE was recognized as a condition relatively recently. PHACE (sometimes also called PHACE association, PHACES syndrome, PHACES association or Pascual-Castroviejo type II syndrome) is an associated...

Learn more
Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET)

Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) form a group of tumors defined by their appearance that are thought to develop from primitive (undifferentiated) nerve cells in the brain. They are rare tumors...

Learn more
Phenylketonuria (PKU)

Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a genetically determined metabolic disorder that is highly treatable with diet and supplements. It is an inherited disease in which the body cannot metabolize an amino acid...

Learn more
Poliomyelitis

Poliomyelitis, or simply polio, is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by three types of poliovirus. The poliovirus is a virus that destroys nervous system causing paralysis. Since the polio...

Learn more
Polysomnography

Polysomnography is the all-night recording of multiple brain and body activities including brain waves (EEG), eye movements, muscle tone, limb movements, heart rate and rhythm(electrocardiogram), and...

Learn more
Treatment
Prematurity

Overview A baby born before 37 weeks of pregnancy is considered premature. Slightly fewer than 12 percent of all babies are premature. Overall, the rate of premature births is rising, mainly due to...

Learn more
Rabies

Rabies is a viral infection of certain warm-blooded animals (such as skunks, raccoons, foxes, coyotes and bats) and is caused by a virus in the Rhabdoviridae family. It attacks the nervous system and,...

Learn more
Rett Syndrome

Rett syndrome is a genetic disorder of the nervous system that causes a regression (loss) of language and motor skills. The syndrome is considered one of the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), although...

Learn more
Reye Syndrome

Reye syndrome is a rare condition that affects the normal chemical balance in the body, resulting in potential damage to all organs, but primarily the brain and liver. As the inflammation in the brain...

Learn more
Rheumatic Fever

Rheumatic fever is a systemic immune disease that affects the joints, skin, heart, blood, vessels, and brain. Rheumatic fever may develop after your child is infected with strep throat or scarlet...

Learn more
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is an infection caused by a type of bacteria carried by ticks. Despite its name, cases of RMSF have been reported throughout the entire United States, not just in...

Learn more
Scabies

Scabies is an infestation of mites. These tiny insects leave small red bumps that cause intense itching. The mites burrowing into the skin where they lay eggs that hatch a few days later cause the...

Learn more
Scleroderma

Scleroderma is a chronic autoimmune condition that leads to scarring of the skin, joints, and other internal organs. In the United States, about one in 1,000 people are affected. While found among all...

Learn more
Seizures

Seizures happen when brain cells fire or “talk” too much, temporarily disrupting the brain’s normal electrical signals. They’re quite common, especially in infants and young children, and they have a...

Learn more
Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA)

What is spinal muscular atrophy? Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a rare genetic condition in which muscles throughout the body are weakened because cells in the spinal cord and brainstem do not work...

Learn more
Stroke

Is my child having a stroke? If you see any of these symptoms in your child, don’t wait—go directly to an emergency room. weakness on one side of the body difficulty speaking difficulty walking or...

Learn more
Sturge-Weber Syndrome

What is Sturge-Weber syndrome? Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) is a rare neurological condition that is present at birth and is not hereditary. Recently, researchers have found that the underlying cause...

Learn more
Syncope

Syncope is the medical term for fainting. It’s a temporary loss of consciousness and muscle tone that occurs when not enough blood goes to the brain. Fainting affects people of all ages. More than 100...

Learn more
Tectal Gliomas

A tectal glioma is a low-grade, slow-growing brain tumor in the tectum, the roof of the brain stem. The brain stem controls vital body functions such as breathing, heart rate and blood pressure....

Learn more
Condition
Tetanus

What is tetanus? Tetanus is an acute, sometimes fatal, disease of the central nervous system, caused by the toxin of the tetanus bacterium, which usually enters the body through an open wound. The...

Learn more
Thalamic Astrocytoma and Hypothalamic Astrocytoma

A brain tumor is always a very serious matter, and a thalamic or hypothalamic astrocytoma is no exception. A thalamic/hypothalamic astrocytoma is a low-grade, slow-growing glioma (brain tumor) that...

Learn more
Thrombosis (Blood Clots)

When they help prevent bleeding, blood clots are a normal and healthy function of the human body. However, a thrombosis (or thrombus) is an excessive or dangerous blood clot that develops somewhere it...

Learn more
Tick Bites

Overview Ticks are small insects that attach their bodies onto a human or animal host. Ticks live in grass, bushes, wooded areas and seashores. Ticks prefer hairy areas such as the scalp, behind the...

Learn more
Torticollis

Unlike many health conditions that develop silently inside the body, pediatric torticollis is easy to see from the outside. You can recognize it when your child’s head persistently tilts to one side....

Learn more
Tourette's Disorder

Tics are abrupt, purposeless, and involuntary vocal sounds or muscular jerks. They are sudden, rapid, and recurrent. They can involve any body part and may vary in severity—from very mild and hardly...

Learn more
Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

Overview Toxic epidermal necrolysis is a life-threatening skin disorder characterized by a blistering and peeling of the skin. The condition causes the skin to peel in sheets, leaving large raw areas....

Learn more
Toxic Shock Syndrome

Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a rare but life-threatening complication of bacterial infection. TSS can affect anyone, male or female. However, it occurs most frequently in young women who wear tampons...

Learn more
Treacher Collins Syndrome

Overview Treacher Collins syndrome is a genetic birth disorder characterized by the premature joining of certain bones of the skull during development, which affects the shape of the head and face....

Learn more
Trisomies and Monosomies

Overview A trisomy and a monosomy are types of numerical chromosome abnormalities that can cause certain birth defects. Normally, people are born with 23 chromosome pairs, or 46 chromosomes, in each...

Learn more
Trisomy 18 and 13

Overview The term trisomy describes the presence of three chromosomes instead of the usual pair of chromosomes. For example, trisomy 21, or Down syndrome, occurs when a baby has three #21 chromosomes....

Learn more
Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC)

Our bodies are stocked with sophisticated controls that keep our cells working in harmony with one other, so that no cells grow to overstep their bounds. When one of these central systems isn’t...

Learn more
Turner Syndrome

"I approach treatment as a long-term conversation between me, the patient and her parents about the best courses of action. Establishing some level of normalcy for families in situations that's aren't...

Learn more
Wilms' Tumor

Wilms tumor (also called nephroblastoma) is a cancerous tumor in the cells of the kidney. Fortunately, with the right treatment, Wilms tumor is highly treatable. Wilms tumor can occur at any age...

Learn more
Condition
Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a very rare, serious and potentially life-threatening disorder that almost always affects boys. It causes a child to have a poorly functioning immune system – the...

Learn more
We are grateful to have been ranked #1 on U.S. News & World Report's list of the best children's hospitals in the nation for the third year in a row, an honor we could not have achieved without the patients and families who inspire us to do our very best for them. Thanks to you, Boston Children's is a place where we can write the greatest children's stories ever told.”
- Sandra L. Fenwick, President and CEO

Boston Children's Hospital 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 617-355-6000 | 800-355-7944

Close