Autism spectrum disorders. One in 88 children are diagnosed with autism each year. Diagnosis and treatment of autism spectrum disorders are challenging because of their complexities. Studies continue to show early intervention and diagnosis are important in reversing and/or maintaining these children’s developmental skills.
Learning disabilities and behavioral disorders continue to be important topics. Roughly 5 percent of children are diagnosed with a learning disability and 4 percent of those children have ADHD coupled with a learning disability (Department of Education, 2010).
Perinatal disorders also continue to be an important and growing area of research in childhood disease. Many physicians have limited experience and exposure to childhood stroke. Classification, evaluation and treatment are still new and burgeoning areas of education (Kyland, Hirtz, DeVeber, & Nelson, 2002).
Metabolic diseases. According to the United Mitochondrial Disease Foundation, mitochondria are responsible for sustaining 90 percent of the energy needed to support development and growth. Diseases that affect mitochondria can cause significant damage to major organs. There is a great variability in presentation of the disease, making diagnosis difficult (Haas, Parikh, & Parikh, 2007).